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By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu             



                   Footnote: (in order of decimal system)

         1.   The date of Buddha's death is given by the Buddhists of Ceylon as 544 B.C., according to Alexandra David Neel; but according to Dr. Edward Conze the the date of Buddha's death was around 480 B.C. and according to some Chinese historian, 485 B.C.  He was eighty years old.

              Buddhist canonical writings do not mention the life of Sakyamuni from life to death. The full length of biography of Buddha Sakyamuni can be found in the work of the first century Indian poet Ashvaghosha called Buddhacarita meaning "The Arts of the Buddha". In Buddhacarita, it mentioned that prince Siddhartha asked his father to let him tour the the country. His father cleared the route of unpleasant sights in advance but on three different occasions a deity disguised himself to  expose to the prince the sufferings of the world.

         1.01 The Sakya race belongs to same race as Tibetan race and certain Nepalese race according to "Buddhist Glossary" by Liu Yuen Kai (劉元凱).

         1.12 Some people erroneously think the followers of Red sect wear red robes, the followers of Yellow sect wear yellow robes. Actually lamas of all Tibetan sects wear robes of dark red color.

         1.2  Dr. Edward Conze has devoted many years in translating the volumnous Prajna Paramita text.

         1.21 During the later part of third century, China was divided into different factions ruled by different minority races.  One of the rulers, Fu Chien was one of the strongest factions. His general, Lueh Kuang was successful in advancing westward. Fu Chien order the general to find and invite the then famous monk, Kumarajiva to come to China proper to teach and to translate Buddhist scriptures. Emperor Fu Chien was killed during a battle by a stray arrow. He was succeeded by a general, Sao. The Kingdom is known as Sao Chin or Later Chin. General Lueh Kuan established himself in the western part of China as a ruler of an independent state. He was successful in locating Kumarajiva. Kumarajiva was then invited by the successor of general Sao and went to the Kingdom of Sao Chin to teach and translated Buddhist scriptures. He was provided with three thousands assistants in do the     work of translation.

         1.22 During the era of Hwai Ti of West Tsen during the period of Yuen Chia (西晉懷帝永樂年), Tantrism was introduced into China by an Indian monk Chinserimitara who translated Peacock King Deity Mantra Sutra  and Peacock King Miscelaneous Deity Mantra Sutra.

         1.3  The eight Mahayana sects in China: Fa Xiang, ()  San Lun (Three Sastras or Abhidhammas),() Hua Yen,  ()Tian Tai,() Chan Zong (Zen in Japanese),()   Lu Zong (Canons), () Tantric,() Pure Land ().

              Each emphasizes certain sutras and treatises (sastra or abhidhammas).

              For example:

             Tian Tai (Tendai in Japanese) sect emphasizes the Sadharma Pundarika Sutra, the  Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Maha Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Sastra of Great Wisdom.

              Pure Land sect emphasizes the Amitayus Sutra, the Contemplation of Amitayus Sutra, Amitabha Sutra, and the Incarnation Sastra.

          1.31 Dr. Edward Conze, in his book "Buddhism: Its Essence And Development", mentions that there are Left Handed Tantra and Right Handed Tantra, that the Vajrayana is the Left Handed Tantra and Eastern Tantra is the Right Handed Tantra;  and that the Left Handed Tantra belongs to the Shaktic (sexual) type, while the Right Handed Tantra belongs to the non Shaktic type. But as far as the understanding of the author that the Tantric School followers call themselves:  "Sons and younger brothers of Adamantine Vehicle" meaning: Vajrayanist. Tantric School also practise the Skatic type of training. But the Eastern Tantric Sect which was introduced to Japan and Korea from China during the Tang dynasty consists only the External Vehicle of the three lower tantras which does not include the sexual practice found only in the Internal Vehicle of the "Highest Tantra".

          1.32 Tathagata is the title of a buddha. Tathagata means he who has come or he who has gone (tatha agata). In Chinese  the word tathagata is translated "as if has come (). 

              The five Tathagatas are also known as five jinas meaning victor or conquerors. They are : Vairocana (the Illuminator), Akshobhya (the Imperturbable), Ratna Sambhava (the Jewel-Born), Amitabha (the Infinite Light) and Amoghasiddhi (the Unfailing Success). They represent the forces of the universe.

              These five buddhas were introduced into the Buddhism around 750 A.D. They are deemed to be in existence in the every beginning as buddhas. They did not work their             way up from laymen or animals as other buddhas. The five Tathagata system was not part of the original Buddhish concept.

         1.33 Dzogchen and Padmasambhava by Sogyal Rinpoche, spiritual director of Rigpa Organization: "Buddha while passing into parinirvana, predicted that Padmasambhava would be born,  eight or twelve years after him to spread the teaching of the Mantrayana. Yet Padmasambhava was still in Tibet in the eighth century A.D.".

          3.   Chun Siang () literally mean concentration of thought, which is a technigue of meditation.

          4.   Era of Six Dynasties approximately corresponds to the period of 317 A.D. to 583 A.D..

          5.   Nei Dan Daoism is a sect of Daoism (not the religious Taosim ) which rejected the practice of alchemy that tried to discovered the "pill" of eternal youth through processing mercury and lead ore. Instead they discovered that the pill (tan), which is the energy could be developed inside (nei) the body through  certain energy training. Their qi training methods      have evolved into an important part of modern day qiqong  (chi kung).

          7.1  As explained by His Holiness Dalai Lama the 14th, during his teaching of Dzogchen that Dzogchen is considered to belong to the old translation and Mahamudra is considered to belong to the new translation. Usually the term "old translation" refers to Nyingma school while "new translation" refers to the three other major schools besides Nyingma school. Old translation should not be interpreted as translating from Sanskrit text to Tibetan text.  Actually Dzogchen existed in Tibet and was practised by the followers of Bonism which is an offshoot of daoism.

          7.2  Hans are the majority of Chinese people. Chinese are composed of Hans, Mongolians, Manchurian, Chinese Turkist,  Tibetans, Miaos and many other minorities. Regions of Hans are regions  traditionally where the majority of Han nationals live.

         7.201 Tutelary deity or Yidam in Tibetan, is regarded as the protecting deity in exoteric theories; but in esoteric teaching yidams are regarded as mystical forces and energy of the body and mind. Sometimes yidam is translated as istadevata of the Hindus. Istadevatas are not exactly the same as yidams.  Istadevatas are deities with whom the devotees fall in love.

          7.21 The study of Tantric sect can be classified into Teachings (教) and Action (事). Action can divided into Training (功) and Methods (法). Teachings includes all exoteric Buddhist scriptures and Tantric theories. Training is training in skill and techniques .  Method is metaphysical methods.

          8.   Explained in the treatise of Tsongkapa, found in Han as well as Tibetan writings.

         12.  Du Mai (督脈) is the energy channel at the back that  runs along the spine from the bottom of the trunk to the top of the head.


         1.   Tsongkapa,"Yoga of Tibet"

         2.   Dalai Lama 14th, Tsongkapa and Jeffrey Hopkins, "Tantra in Tibet"

         3.   Monk Chu Chuan Fa Shih: "Mi Tsung Buddhism" (in Chinese)

         4.   Edward Conze, "Buddhist Wisdom Books"

         5.   Lama Anagarika Govinda, "Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism"

         6.   Vajrapani Instute, "Heart Sutra"

         7.   Solang Tunchu, member of Tibetan Social Science Research Institute, Chairman of Tibetan Tantric Techniques and Methods Research Committee of People Republic of China: "Chinese Qi

              Gong and Science" (in Chinese)

         8.   Tiley Chodag," Tibet, the Land and the People"

         9.   Monk Hsuen Hua: "Heart Sutra Interpretation" (in Chinese)

         10.  Liu Yuan Kai, "Buddhist Terminology" (in Chinese)

         11.  W. Y. Evans-Wentz, "Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines"

         12.  Tsongkapa, "

         13.  Wang-Ch'ug Dor-je, The Ninth Karmapa, "Eliminating The Darkness of Ignorance"

         14.  Takpo Tashi Namgyal, "Mahamudra, The Quintessence of Mind And Meditation"

         15.  Raghavan Iyer, "Diamond Sutra"

         16.  Edward Conz, "Buddhist Wisdom Books"

         17.  Edward Conz, "Buddhism: Its Essential Development"

         18.  E.B. Cowell, "Buddhist Mahayana Text"

         19.  Khetsun Sangpo Rinbochay,"Tantric Practice in Nying-ma"

         20.  F. D. Lessing & A. Wayman, "Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric System"

         21.  Yu Li Bo, "Heart Sutra Interpretation" (in Chinese)

         22.  Sogyal Rinpoche, "Dzogchen & Padmasambhava"

         23.  Tsongkapa: "Budhi Dao Ci Lun" (The Path to  Enlightenment) (in Chinese)


By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu             

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