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Chapter 27

Adrenocortical Hormone

Translated and edited by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

(For Chinese terms see Bio-Chem Dictionary )

Table of content

Section 1: Classification of Adrenocortical hormone

I. Classification according to structures

II. Classification according to functions and their relationship to structures.

    (1) glucocorticoid

     (2) mineralocorticoid

     (3) sex hormone

  1. androgen

  2. estrogen

Section 2: Bio-synthesis of adrenocortical hormone

        I. The process of synthesis of adrenocortical hormone

        II. Enzymes involved in the synthesis of adrenocortical hormone

        III. Clinical significance of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of adrenocortical hormone 

              (1) hydroxylase inhibitor in clinical application

              (2) congenital adrenal gland hyperplasia

        IV.  Synthesis of sex hormone of adrenal cortex

Section 3: The transport, inactivation, excretion of adrenocortical hormone

          I. Transport of adrenocortical hormone in blood circulation

          II. The inactivation and excretion of adrenocortical hormone

               (1) Inactivation reaction of adrenocortical hormone

                     1. Reduction with hydrogen

                     2.  Oxidization of 11 position of hydroxy base

                     3. Breakage of 17 side bonds

                     4. Hydroxylation

                     5. Combination

               (2) The metabolites of adrenocortical hormone in urine

                     1. 17-ketosteroid (17-OHCS)

                     2. 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-KS)

                     3. 17 ketogenic steroid (17-KGS)

Section 4. Functions of adrenocortical hormone

             I. functions of gluccocorticoid

                 (1) general metabolism of nuclear acid, sugar, protein and fat

                 (2) metabolism of salt and water

                 (3) function on certain organs, structures and tissues

                       1. blood

                       2. fatty tissue

                       3. connective tissue

                       4.  skin

                        5. skeleton

                        6. skeleton muscle

                        7. stomach

                         8. heart and blood vessel system

                         9. lungs

                         10. CNS

                    (4) Biological function of therapeutic effect of gluccocorticoid

                        1. anti inflammatory

                        2.  anti allergy

                         3. anti toxicity

                         4. anti shock

                     (5) Drugs that possess functions of gluccocorticoid

             II. functions of mineralcorticoid

                     (1) effect on kidneys

                     (2) effect on other than kidneys

Section 5.  Regulating of secretion of adrenocortical hormone

                   

            I. regulating of secretion of cortisol

          (1)  functions of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticotropin)

            (2) regulating of secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone

                  1. regulating of secretion of ACTH by hypothalamus

                  2. regulating of feedback of glucocorticoid toward ACTH

                  3. regulating of feedback of ACTH toward CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone)

               (3) influence of stress toward axis of hypothalamus - pitutary gland - adrenal cortex               

                (4) circadian cycle of secretion of cortisol  

             II. regulating of secretion of aldosterone

                    (1) regulating function of renin - angiotensin toward aldosterone

                     (2) regulating of function of plasma concentration of potassium toward aldosterone

                     (3) regulating of function of plasma concentration of sodium toward aldosterone

                      (4) regulating of ACTH toward aldosterone

                      (5) circadian cycle of secretion of aldosterone

Section 6. Significance and evaluation of examinations of the functions of adrenocortical hormone

                I. analysis of the functions of adrenocortical hormone and its metabolites

                (1) metabolites of adrenocortical hormone

                     1.  17-hydroxysteroid (17-OHCS)

                     2.  17-ketosteroid (17-KS)

                     3.  17-ketogenic steroid (17-KGS)

                (2) free cortisol in urine

                24 hour urine analysis (excessive amount of urine can give false   reading of high cortisol.)

                (3)  11-

Section 7. 'kidney' in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and adrenocortical hormone

                 I.  shenyangxu (kidney yang deficient)腎陽虛

                 II. shenyinxu (kidney yin deficient)  腎陰虛

See Bio-chemistry dictionary.

 

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Last update: April 20, 2014; 11 a.m. LAH