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allium_sativum.htm  garlic.htm da_suan.htm

 

da suan, garlic 大 蒜  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

Pharmaceutical name﹕

英文藥名:

Bulbus Allii

Latin botanical name﹕

拉丁學名:

allium sativum L.

Allium officinarum Hance.

Pron. in Japanese﹕

日語發音:

taisan

Pron. in Korean﹕韓語發音:

taisan

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵音﹕

daai6 syun3

Common Name﹕

外語:

  1. garlic (English).

  2. bawang putih (Malay, Indonesia)

  3. bawang (Tagalog, Ilokano);

  4. ajos (Bisaya);

Distribution

產地:

all over the world

世界各地。

Properties (characteristics)

性味﹕

acrid, warm.

辛﹐溫。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經﹕

large intestine, lung, spleen, stomach.

大腸﹐肺﹐脾﹐胃。

Actions & Indications﹕

主治療:

see samples of formulae

處方舉例。

Medical Function:

藥理﹕

Medical Function:

  1. lower blood lipids

  2. lower blood sugar

  3. effect on cardiovascular system: its sulfur containing substance and ascorbic acid can improve the activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) thus  promoting vasodilation and lowering blood pressure, improving capillary circulation, and anti arterio-sclerosis.[7]

  4. antibiotic effect

  5. anti aging effect

  6. improves immune system

  7. anti platelet coagulation[3]

  8. anti tumor:May inhibit stomach and asophagus cancer. [2]

  9. anti toxin: for treatment of lead and mercury poison.

  10. anti radiation

  11. anti inflammation effect [4]

  12. inhibits building up of biofilm [5] [6]

藥理﹕

  1. 降血脂作用

  2. 降血糖作用

  3. 對心血管系统的作用:大蒜所含的部份含硫物質與抗壞血酸可提高 內皮型一氧化氮合酶 (eNOS) 的活性而促進血管舒張,降低血壓,促進微循環,抗血管硬化。[7]

  4. 抗病原微生物作用

  5. 抗衰老作用

  6. 增強免疫作用

  7. 抗血小板凝聚作用

  8. 抗腫瘤作用: 有抗胃癌,食道癌之作用。[2]

  9. 解毒作用 。用于治療鉛與水銀中毒。

  10. 抗辐射

  11. 抑制菌類生物膜的生成。[5] [6]

  12. 大蒜素的二丙烯基二硫醇溶液對乙肝病毒表面抗原的破壞率達43.5%,証明大蒜素對乙肝病毒表面抗原有一定的破壞作用

 

Chemical ingredients﹕

化學成份:

1. allyl methyl sulfide (烯丙基甲基硫醚), diallyl sulfide, 6-methyl-1-thio-2, 4-cyclohexadiene, dimethyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide, dithiocyclopentene, 5-methyl-1, 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene, allyl propyl disulfide, 4-methyl-1, 2-dithio-3-cyclopentene, 3-vinyl-1, 2-dithio-4-cyclohexene, 3-vinyl-1, 2-dithio-5 cyclohexene, dimethyl  trisulfide, allyl methyl trisulfide, 4-vinyl-1, 2, 3-trithio-5-cyclohexene,diallyl trisulfide, allyl propyl trisulfide, diallyl tetrasulfide, dipropyl disulfide, methyl propyl trisulfide, allyl methyl tetrasulfide, allyl methyl pentasulfide.

allicin (大蒜素), sulfur dioxide, 2-hydroxy-propylene, cymene, trans-ajoene, cis-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4-H-1, 3-dithiin,3-vinyl-4-H-1, 2-dithiin.

2. scorodose (大蒜糖), GF-1, II, III, IVa, IV.

3. alliin (蒜氨酸), allicin, A, B, C, D, E, F.

4. alliinase (蒜氨酸酶).

5.  scordinin  A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3 (增精素甲1﹐甲2﹐甲3﹐乙1﹐乙23).

6. Proeruboside B, 26-O-Beta-glucopyranosyl-22-hydroxy-25-(R)-5alpha-furostane-3beta, 6beta, 26-triol-3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-beta-galactopyranoside); Sativoside-R1, (25R)-26-O-Beta-D-glucopyranosyl-22-hydroxy-5alpha-furostane-3beta, 26-diol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->3)

-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->2) -

O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)] -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2) -O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1-->3)] -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside);Sativoside-R2,(tigogenin) -3-O-Beta-D-glucopyranosyl- 91--.3) - O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4) -O-beta-D-galactopyranoside).[21]

7. oxalic acid (草酸)0.36 g/100g

Dosage﹕

用量:

6 to 15 g or 3 to 5 cloves in decoction.

Samples of formulae﹕

處方舉例:

Asthma (folk formula from Jiang Su province of China)

15 pieces of single clove garlic, rock sugar 300 g

First place 5 pieces of garlic and 100 g of rock sugar in a bowl and steam them on top of rice (while cooking) for 20 minutes. Drink the juice and save the garlic. After nine days, use the cooked garlic and add 5 more pieces and 100 g of rock sugar and cook the same way. Drink the juice and save the garlic. After nine days do the same thing with the rest of the garlic and rock sugar and the cooked garlic.

This formula is good for cold type of asthma and not to be used with heat type of asthma.

Whooping Cough (folk's formula) during acute period:

Ingredients: da suan (garlic) 10 g, drinking water 50 c. c., sugar to taste.

Smash da suan (da suan) and add drinking water and sugar to taste. Take 5 to 10 g each time.

Editor opinion: this formula can be use in early stages to inhibit the bacteria (Bordetella pertussis) from forming colonies.

百日咳

【原料】大蒜10克 白糖適量

【制作】將大蒜去皮搗爛,加開水50克,澄清後加白糖適量。

【用法】每服5∼10克,每日2∼3次。

【功效】抗菌消炎,驅虫健胃。適用于百日咳 痙咳期。

【來源】民間驗方

 

Note by the editor:

Single clove garlic :

A single clove garlic looks like an onion but tastes like garlic. It is the result of planting immature garlic clove. It is also called garlic onion. If the garlic onion is planted the following fall, it will produce a normal multi-clove garlic again.

Modern Research﹕

現代研究:

On acute cerebaral infarction

effect on pulse wave velocity

Garlic Supplements Can Impede HIV Medication

http://www.springerlink.com/content/8361358w7913m626/

Effect on E. coli [1]

On fighting chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients﹕ by inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is one of the most common causes of chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients. Garlic has been used to to inhibit a bacterial communication system called quorum sensing . Quorum sensing enable the bacteria to form bio-films which are the tenacious colonies of bacteria in the lungs. The quorum sensing molecules also switch on bacterial weapons such as elastase, an enzyme which breaks down elastic tissue in the lung.  Thus according to the researchers lead by Alan Smyth of the School of Human Development of University of Nottingham.

大蒜可以抑制數量感應(quorum sensing)而抑制囊 肿性纤维化病患之慢性綠膿桿菌感染。細菌 數量感應之分子也可能引起細菌武器如彈性蛋白脢。彈性蛋白脢能溶解肺臟組織之彈力素使得肺容量降低。

抑制大腸桿菌作用【1】

Cautions﹕

禁忌:

not to use in cases of yin deficient (yinxu), shortly after child birth, measles, boils, epidemic diseases, toothache, tongue infection, during diarrhea or eye infection.

Large dosages in concentrated form in long term usage can be toxic to kidneys.

Garlic Supplements Can Impede HIV Medication

凡一切陰虛火旺之徵象﹐以及產後 ﹐痘疹﹐時疫﹐瘡瘍﹐目疾﹐舌爛﹐泄瀉﹐牙齒疼痛 ﹐咽喉不利等癥﹐均忌食之。

長期服用大 劑量可能對腎臟有毒

[1] doi:10.1089/fpd.2005.2.330.

[2] http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1882005

[3] J Physiol. citation-publication-date 1972 March; 221(2):  ISSN  0910-5050

[4] Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 Apr 1;30(7):747-56.

[5] Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 January; 49(1): 473. doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.1.473.2005

[6]  2012 May;61(Pt 5):662-71. Epub 2012 Feb 2.

[7] Journal of Nutrition and MetabolismVolume 2011 (2011), Article ID 475216, 7 pages
doi:10.1155/2011/475216

史上記載張 騫 出使西域時將大蒜帶回中原。張 騫﹙公 元  前 1 6 4 年公 元 前 1 1 4 年 ﹚ , 漢 中 郡 成 固 ﹙ 今 陝 西 城 固 縣 ﹚ 人 。 漢 武 帝 建 元 二 年 ﹙公 元 前 1 3 9 年 ﹚ , 朝 廷 招 募 出 使 西 域 的 人 , 張 騫 以 郎 官 身 份 應 募 。

大蒜所含的部份含硫物質與抗壞血酸可提高 eNOS 的活性而促進血管舒張

 

To be translated:  (以下將會翻譯為英文)

1﹐降脂降糖作用:大蒜提取物可明顯降低高脂血症家兔的血脂及低密度脂蛋白,升高高密度脂蛋白,使主動脈脂質含量下降72%,粥樣硬化斑塊明顯縮小,效果優於氯貝特(Clofibrate) (又名氯貝丁酯﹐安妥明﹐冠心平。)大蒜精油可有效對抗血脂升高,使血清及肝臟的膽固醇﹐甘油三酯維持於正常水平。其機理可能與降低血清酯化膽固醇有關。大蒜還可影響肝糖原合成,增加血漿胰島素水平,對糖尿病患者呈現頗為有益的治療作用。

  2﹐對心血管系統的作用:近年的一系列動物實驗及臨床療效一致表明,大蒜素有顯著的降壓作用。並可改善微循環,增加外周血流量和組織纖溶蛋白溶酶原激活劑的活性,抑制凝血因子見的活性,降低血漿丙二醛水平,並有明顯的抗動脈粥樣硬化作用。大蒜精油對高膽固醇血症引起的主動脈粥樣硬化具有較好的保護作用。

  3.抗病原微生物作用:大蒜被稱為天然抗菌素,對化膿性鏈球菌﹐金黃色葡萄球菌 ﹐腦膜炎雙球菌﹐肺炎球菌’﹐結核杆菌﹐痢疾杆菌﹐傷寒杆菌﹐大腸杆菌﹐霍亂弧菌等均有殺滅或抑制作用,且不產生耐藥性。其有效成分中大蒜素和折光率在1.57以上的大蒜精油抗菌作用最強。大蒜提取物時常見致病性皮膚真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,有研究者認為其抗菌物質中有一個類似抗微生物性質的化合物,它是非揮發油性油狀液體。另外,本品對巨細胞病毒有較好抑制作用,其效價隨濃度的提高相應增強。

  4﹐抗衰老作用:有人將大蒜與人參作比較。發現蒜氨酸 (alliin) 和大蒜乙醇提取物的體外抗氧化活性優於人參,在體內大蒜對肝臟抑制超氧化物歧化酸的活性亦優於人參,在腦內活性稍遜於人參,提示大蒜對延緩衰老有一定作用。

  5﹐免疫作用:研究表明,大蒜素 (allicin)可誘導人淋巴細胞轉化,天然蒜液能增加T淋巴細胞轉化,增加巨噬細胞和淋巴細胞的功能活動,使免疫功能增強。

  6﹐抗血小板凝聚作用:服用大蒜素(allicin)可使血小板黏附率明顯下降,明顯延長動物凝血時間。大蒜精油也具有溶栓和抗血小板凝集作用。

  7﹐抗腫瘤作用:近年國外學者發現,口服大蒜油能抑制化學性致癌物苯並芘誘發皮膚癌的過程,可能通過抑制芳基羥化酶系統的活化,在組織癌變的啟動階段就阻斷了致癌物對正常細胞產生的誘變過程。有人研究發現,本品對亞硝膠誘發肝癌前病變有明顯的干擾作用。大蒜精油能參與細胞遺傳物質DNA正常的分裂和修復過程,缺乏大蒜精油時,會使細胞DNA異常,從而為肺癌 ﹐肝癌﹐食道癌的發生創造了條件。大蒜油還有增加中性粒細胞﹐巨噬細胞數量的作用。生食大蒜能抑制胃內硝酸鹽還原菌的生長,從而使胃液中的因細菌作用而產生的亞硝酸鹽減少。大蒜中的二烯丙基硫和鈣鹽是兩種非常重要的抗癌因子,通過防止致癌物形成,干擾致癌物的活化,增強解毒性能,法除反應性代謝產物等方式,避免正常細胞向癌細胞的轉化,其所含的有效成分還可刺激免疫反應﹐阻斷過氧化物生成 ﹐抑制增生等多種方式作用於腫瘤發生的促進階段,進一步阻止腫瘤細胞的形成。

  8﹐解毒作用:新近有人試用大蒜片0.3克,每日3次口服治療鉛中毒,有效率100%。通過小鼠ATP酶變化研究大蒜對汞中毒的防治作用,亦顯示其拮抗作用良好。

  9﹐其它:大蒜還具有抗輻射﹐保護生物膜等作用。0.5%大蒜液5分鐘後可使陰道滴虫喪失活力,本品也可用干牙周病 ﹐鼻衄﹐感冒﹐慢性胃炎等疾病的預防和治療。大蒜提取物有增加伊蚊幼虫死亡率的作用,其百萬分之一的提取液對雌蚊有驅除作用。
 

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