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chuan xin lian 穿 心 蓮

by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

穿 心 蓮  
Pharmaceutical name: Herb andrographitis paniculatae
Biological name: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees
Pron. in Japanese: senhinren
Pron. in Korean: chonsimyon
Pron. in Cantonese: chun sam lian
Common Name: green chiretta
Distribution: Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi provinces
Properties (characteristics) bitter, cold
Channels (meridians) entered: lungs, large intestine, bladder
Actions & Indications: clear heat and toxins, cool blood, reduce swelling, for fever in influenza, swelling and pain in throat, boils in mouth and tongue, chronic cough, diarrhea, painful urination, snake bites


Medical Function:
  1. The whole herb possess antibiotic, antiviral, antipyretic and ridding of parasite effect
  2. 5 to 40% of decoction, to different degrees, inhibits Staphylococcus aureaus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Hemolytic streptococcus,
  3. inhibits leptospirosis: andrographolide crude crystal of 1/5000 can inhibit invitro leptospirosis. It is more effective toward the fever type, Australian type, flu type and typhoid type. High concentration can cause leptospirosis to become stiff and to dissolve.
  4. antiviral effect: it can slow down the effect of Enteric cytopathic human orphan virus (ECHO) on cell mutation.
  5. antipyretic effect: deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide possess the antipyretic effect on rabbits with typhoid and with Paratyphoid Fever or fever caused by 2,4- dinitrobenzenephenol.
  6. anti-inflammatory effect:  deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide possess the effect of different degrees of anti-inflammatory effect. Stomach infusion of 1g/kg and inhibits the leakage of capillaries of the abdomen cavaties or skin of mice cause by xylene. (C 6 H 4 ) or acetic acid. It can decrease the exudate of Selve's granuloma cause by fruit of Croton tiglium but it does not affect the growth of the granuloma. It can inhibit the development edema of the paws of the rats caused by ege white; but the effect disappeared after removal of the adrenal glans.
  7. antihypertensive effect: decoction of chuan xin lian can lower the blood pressure of cats under anaesthesia. The stems of chuan xin lian is more effective than the leaves.
  8. effect on pitutary-adrenocortical hormone : large amount of  deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, can cause the thymuses of young mice into atrophy. This shows that the chemicals of this herb can enhance the function of the adrenocortex. The injectiones made from this herb can stimulate the pitutary - adrenocortex system.

1. 全草有抗菌,抗病毒,解熱,驅蟲等作用。

2. 抗菌作用: 穿心蓮540%水煎劑對金黃色葡萄球菌、變形桿菌,綠膿桿菌,肺炎雙球菌,溶血性鏈狀菌,傷寒及痢疾桿菌呈不同程度抑菌作用。

3. 抗鉤端螺旋體作用: 穿心蓮總內酯粗結晶15000在體外對鉤端螺旋體有抑制作用,對致熱型、澳洲型及流感傷寒型較敏感,高濃度可使螺旋體僵硬失靈以致溶解。

4. 抗病毒作用: 穿心蓮能延緩埃柯病毒致細胞病變的作用。

5. 解熱作用: 去氧穿心蓮內酯、穿心蓮內酯、穿心蓮苷,脫水穿心蓮內酯對於傷寒副傷寒菌苗所致發熱之家兔或2,4─二硝基苯酚所致發熱之大白鼠均有一定解熱作用。

 6. 抗炎症作用: 去氧穿心蓮內酯,穿心蓮內酯、穿心蓮苷、脫水穿心蓮內酯均具有不同程度的抗炎作用,lg/kg灌服時能抑制二甲苯或醋酸所致小鼠皮膚或腹腔毛細血管通透性的增高,減少Selye氏肉芽囊中巴豆油所致急性滲出液量,但對肉芽組織增生無明顯影響,能抑制蛋清所致大鼠腳爪水腫的發展,但切除腎上腺後作用消失。

 7. 降壓作用: 穿心蓮煎劑對麻醉貓能引起降壓作用,其中莖的降壓作用比葉明顯。

 8. 對垂體 - 腎上腺皮質功能的影響﹕ 穿心蓮甲﹐乙﹐丙﹐丁素於較大劑量時可能使到幼年小鼠胸腺萎縮﹐提示它們可能增強腎上腺皮質功能。其注射液能明顯興奮大鼠垂體 - 腎上腺皮質系統。

 9. 毒性:

(1) 急性毒性﹕

小鼠與家兔灌服的LD5013.4g/kg 穿心蓮總內酯,去氧穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮甲素) LD50>20g/kg,穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮乙素) LD50>40g/Kg,穿心蓮LD50>20g/kgl4-去氧-11,12-二去氫穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮 丁素) LD50>20g/kg穿心蓮苦味素 10mg/kg 對家兔與小鼠無影響宮內注射對子宮內膜的形態與構結也無影響。

(2) 長期毒性﹕給大白鼠與家兔灌服穿心蓮乙素1g/kg﹐每日一次﹐連續7天。對其體重﹐血象﹐肝﹐腎 功能及主要器官的組織切片未見有明顯的影響。穿心蓮甲素有相同結果。


Chemical ingredients:
whole herb: 全草含:
deoxyandrographolide 0.1% 去氧穿心蓮內酯 0.1%(穿心蓮甲素)
andrographolide 1.5% 穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮乙素)
andrographosterin 穿心蓮
daucosterol 胡蘿蔔
andrographoside 穿心蓮內酯
neoandrographolide 0.2% 穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮 丙素) (穿心蓮)
homoandrographolide 高穿心蓮內酯
andrographan 穿心蓮
14-ninandrographolide 14-去氧穿心蓮內酯
19-glucosyl-deoxyandrographolide 19-葡萄糖基脫氧穿心蓮內酯
14-deoxy-l1,12-oxoandrographolide 14-去氧-1l,12-氧化穿心蓮內酯
14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide l4-去氧-11,12-二去氫穿心蓮內酯 (穿心蓮 丁素)
steroid saponin 固醇皂苷
sugar 糖類
tannins 鞣質
potassium chloride 氯化鉀
sodium chloride 氯化鈉
alkaloids 生物鹼
Root: 根含
mono-O-methylwithin 5-烴基-7,8,2,3-四甲氧基黃酮
andrographin 5-烴基-7,8,2-三甲基黃酮
panicolin 5,2-二羥基7,8-二甲氧基黃酮
apigenin-7,4-dimethylether 芹菜素-7,4-二甲醚
a1-Sitosterol a1-
β-Sitosterol β-
dihydroandrographidin A 二氫黃酮葡萄糖
andrographidin B, C, C, E, F 黃酮葡萄糖
Leaves: 葉含
deoxyandrographalide 去氧穿心蓮內酯
andrographolide 穿心蓮內酯
neoandrograPholide 新穿心蓮內酯
homoandrographolide 高穿心蓮內酯
paniculide A, B, C 欖核蓮內酯
andragraphan 穿心蓮烷
andrographon 穿心蓮酮
andrographosterin 穿心蓮固醇
β-Sitosterol-D -glucoside β-穀固醇-D-葡萄糖苷
oroxylin-A 千層紙素A
wogonin 漢黃芩素
flavon 黃酮
iphatic aldehyde 飽和脂肪醛
young leaves and sprouts: 幼嫩各部分器管及胚軸、胚芽等愈合組織:
PaniculidesA,B,C 穿心蓮內酯A,B,C
Dosage: 9 to 15 g.

The effective ingredients do not not easily dissolve in water. Boiling in water may not be very effective.

9 ~ 15 克。


Samples of formulae: See:Acute infection, diarrhea
Modern Research: to be uploaded
Cautions: large  dosage or long term usage may injure stomach function (qi).

Do not uses in cases of :

  1. pregnancy because it can cause miscarriage.
  2. ulcers in duodenum or in stomach.





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Last update: Oct 21, 2005, 1:37 p.m. RC andrographitis_paniculata.htm  chuan_xin_lian.htm