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ding xiang  (cloves) 丁香    (in English and Chinese 中英文)

 

 by: Joe Hing kwok Chu

Present day applications:

現代應用﹕

For treatment of:
  1. illnesses of digestive system    消化系统病
  2. cardio-vascular diseases      心血管病
  3. auto-immune system and connective tissue diseases   自體免疫系統與結締組織病
  4. external injuries   外傷
  5. nervous system    神經系统
  6. gynecological diseases     婦科
  7. pediatric diseases    小兒 科
  8. skin diseases    皮膚病
  9. eye diseases    眼病
  10. ear, nose and throat diseases     耳鼻喉病
  11. mouth cavity diseases     口腔病

(Details to be loaded)     詳细治法将會上網。

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名﹕

Flores Caryophylli

Botanical name:

學名﹕

Eugenia caryophyllata,

Caryophyllus aromaticus

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音﹕

Chōji, Choji, Kurobu

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音﹕

eonghyang, Chonghyang,

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵音﹕

ding1 hoeng1

Other Names:

別名﹕

ding zi xiang雞舌香
gong ding xiang (the flowers)公丁香 [花蕾]
mu ding xiang (the fruits)母丁香 [果實]
ji she xiang雞舌香

Common Name:

文名﹕

English: cloves

Indonesia/Maley: cengkeh

Distribution:

產地﹕

Clove is widely cultivated in Madagascar, Zanzibar,Indonesia (especially in in Maluku Islands, also known as Spice Islands) , Sri-Lanka,  Tanzania﹐Malaysia﹐Brazil﹐ and Tibet, Guangxi provinces of China.

主產地:印尼的馬魯姑群島,(亦曾經被歐洲人稱香料島 Spice Islands) ﹐ 桑基巴群島,坦尚尼亞,馬達加斯加島, 馬來西亞,錫蘭等地 。 中國西藏,廣西等省 。

Properties

(characteristics)﹕

性 味﹕

acrid, warm.

味辛,性溫。

Channels (meridians) entered:

 

歸經﹕

spleen, lung, stomach, kidney.

脾 ,肺,胃,腎經 。

Medical functions:

藥理﹕

 

Taken internally, it promotes afflux of the stomach mucus, increases stomach secretion, stimulates the gastric nerves, increases peristalsis, absorbing nutrients, improving oxygen in the blood, increases white cell count, stimulates CNS, increases heart rate, inhibits bacteria.

Its essential oil can inhibit the growth of Candida Albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium expansum.

The MIC was used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 9642 and Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9643. Antifungal activity was evaluated for the essential oil and simultaneously for Amphotricin B. Results showed that Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil exhibited a significant activity against fungi, and its MIC on Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were respectively 0.50, 0.125 and 0.25 g ml-1 (ppm).[1]

sesquiterpenes of this herb can be potential anticarcinogenic agents.[2]

The essential oil of this herb can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. [3]

The ethanol induced hepatotoxic effect on white rats can be counteracted by clove (ding xiang) and cardamon feeding and the effect of clove is stronger. [4]

 

內服能使胃粘膜充血,促胃 液之分泌﹐刺激胃腸神經,使蠕動增加。吸收 養份入血,能增 加血中之氧,增加白血球數,使大腦及主要神經受刺激而興奮,促進心跳。能抑制霍亂菌。

其揮發油及其衍生物均可抑制白念珠球菌,黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger),黄霉 (Aspergillus flavus) 和擴展青霉 (Penicillium expansum) 的生長 。

丁香揮發油對念珠球菌,黑曲霉, 黄霉的最小抑菌濃度分別為 0.50, 0.125 and 0.25 g ml-1 (ppm).[1],對 擴展青霉的最小抑菌濃度為 2 0 %。

丁香的化學成份中的倍半萜可能是抗癌之藥劑。【2】

丁香揮發油能增強體液免疫反應,但會降低細胞免疫功能。【3】

乙醇引起的大白鼠肝毒性作用,可以餵以丁香(丁香)和草果抵消;而丁香的效果更強。 [4]

 

Actions & Indications:

主治﹕

  1. For cold and pain in the stomach, hiccups, vomiting: often used with shi ti (persimmon stems). For vomiting, often used with ban xia. (Not to use in cases of vomiting with heat syndromes).
  2. For pain in the stomach and solar plexus: often used with rou gui.
  3. For impotence, weak legs, or vagina yeast infection, often used with fu zi, rou gui, xiao hui xiang, ba ji tian, rou cong rong.
  4. For lymphatic tumors, injuries from impacts use ding gui san: ding xiang, rou gui of equal amount, make into powder. Apply on affected part.
  5. For fungal infection of the body or feet, make alcohol extract of ding xiang or water decoction. Apply on the affect parts.

主治﹕

  1. 用于胃腹冷痛,呃逆 ,嘔吐等症治呃逆,常與降氣止呃的柿蒂配伍;治嘔吐,可與降逆 止嘔的 半夏同用。因本品性溫,不 宜應用於胃 熱嘔呃 。
  2. 用於脘腹疼痛常與 肉桂等同用。
  3. 用於腎陽不足,陽萎,腳弱及寒濕帶下等症。 常與附子肉 桂小茴香巴戟天肉蓯蓉等同 用。
  4. 陰疽,跌打損傷﹐常用 丁桂散﹕丁香與肉 桂等分,共研細末,外用於患處。
  5. 將丁香用酒精 浸泡或 煎蒸,將浸 出液體或煎 液塗抹於皮膚患處, 治療體癬及足癬。

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕

eugenol ( C10H12C2) , 70 -85% of total evaporating oil丁香油酚(C10H12C2) 佔 全揮發油之 70 ~ 85%
acetyl eugenol (eugenol acetate) (CH3COOC10H11O)乙醯丁香油酚 (CH3COOC10H11O)
caryophyllene (C15H24)丁香烯 (C15H24)
eugenin番櫻桃素
eugenitin番櫻桃素亭
isoeugenitin異番 櫻桃素亭
isoeugenitol異番 櫻桃素酚
eugenilin丁香英
oleanolic acid齊墩果酸
rhamnetin鼠李素
kaempherol山奈酚

Dosage:

用 量﹕

1-3 g

Samples of formulae:

處方舉 例﹕

ding xiang shi di tang (Source: ji sheng fang)

Application: hiccups

Composition: ding xiang 2 g, shi di 2 g,  3 g, gan jiang2 g. Make into decoction. Make into 2 servings for one day dosage.

 

丁香柿蒂湯: (濟生方)

主治﹕呃逆

組成﹕丁香2柿 蒂 3人 參 3 乾 薑2, 作煎劑,一日二回分服。

Modern Research:

現代研究﹕

 

Toxicity & Cautions:

毒素與禁忌﹕

large dosages can be toxic to the kidneys.

大劑量可能對腎臟有毒。

  註:母丁香與公丁香藥用一樣。

[1]http://www.biomedpharmajournal.org/BPJ-AbsRead.asp?SNoId=6

[2] J Nat Prod. 1992 Jul;55(7):999-1003.

[3] Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1254-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3412. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

[4] ISSN: 1687-5788

 

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Last update: Feb 27, 2015; 5 p.m. LAH