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gan cao 甘草, gan cao shao 甘草梢, zhi gan cao 炙甘草

 

By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu 朱興國 编譯   (in English and Chinese 中英文)

 

Zhi gan cao is gan cao that has been coated with honey and baked to dark

brown color and often it is being used in tonic. Sheng gan cao is untreated gan cao.

 

Click to see picture of herb.

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名:

Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis

Biological name:

拉丁名:

Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. glandulifera, Rega

Glycyrrhiza inflata Batal. (脹果甘草)

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音:

 kanzo

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音:

kamch'o

Pron. in Cantonese:

粤語發音:

gam1  cou2 

Other names:

別名:

lin cao 靈草,mei cao 美草,mi cao 蜜草,mi gan 蜜甘,tong lin 通靈,lu cao 露草,ji cao 薺草,cao gu 草古,fen cao 汾草,fen cao 粉草,bang cao 棒草,tian gen zi 甜根子

Common Name:

英文名:

Licorice root

Distribution:

分布:

It is mainly produced in Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Qinghai and

Xinjiang .

主產於內蒙,甘肅,陜西,山西,遼寧,吉林,黑龍江,河北,青海, 新疆。

Properties (characteristics)

性味:

Sweet in smell and peculiarly sweet in taste. It is about five hundred times the sweetness of cane sugar.

味甘。較蔗糖甜500 倍。

Channels (meridians) entered:

歸經:

all 12 channels, mainly the heart, lung, spleen and stomach channels.

全部12 經。主要是心,肺,脾,與胃經。

Actions & Indications:

主治:

tonifies pi (spleen), enhances qi, clears heat, rids of toxins, expels phlegm and stops cough, stops pain, synergizes other herbs. Being used in spleen and stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain,

益脾,補氣,清熱,去毒,排痰,止咳,止痛,和其他藥味。 用於脾虚消化不良,疲倦,無力,心跳,氣短,痰多咳嗽,胃部與鸠尾痛
 

Medical Function:

藥理:

  • 1. adrenocortical hormone function As early as 1946 gan cao extract showed the characteristics of mineralcorticoid.    Glycyrrhiza is metabolically converted to glycyrrhetic acid (GA). GA, when incubated in-vitro with adrenal gland cells increases DHEA production.

  • 2. effects on digestive system:   (a). anti ulcer   (b). anti convulsion.  (c).  promotes secretion of insulin.  (d). protects liver from toxin.

  • 3. anti inflammation

  • 4. anti allergy

  • 5. anti cancer:  Saponins stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess in-vitro (in the test tube) anti-cancer activities. Epstein_Barr virus is associated in certain cancer development. Glycyrrhiza also contains quercetin that has anticancer effects. Glycyrrhiza lowers serum testosterone levels and correspondingly increases estrogen levels by inducing two enzymes called 17--hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase thus inhibit prostate cancer cells.

  • 6. anti virus and bacteria:   a. anti HIV, anti HBV   b. anti amoeba and bacteria

  • 7. effect on blood vessels:   a. lower blood lipids.  Both saponins and licoflavones are known to bind to cholesterol and bile acids and have surfactant properties.

  • glycyrrhizin is beneficial in chronic viral hepatitis

  • glycyrrhizin was effective in inhibiting Pseudomona Aeruginosa where antibiotic failed.[2]

  • glycyrrhizin can reverse or stop the process of liver cirrhosis and early cirrhosis. [5]

 

  • 1. 腎上腺 皮質素 作用:早自 1946 年, 已知甘 草提取物顯示 鹽激素 之作用。甘草之甘草酸與腎腺上细胞放入孵化器内可增加産生脫氫表雄酮 (DHEA)*

  • 2. 對消化系统之作用:(a). 抗潰瘍   (b). 抗痙攣  (c).  增進胰素的分泌.  (d). 對抗毒素而有保肝作用

  • 3. 抗炎

  • 4. 抗過敏

  • 5. 抗癌:其皂素有刺激增進免疫系统 ,抑制愛潑斯坦-巴爾二氏病毒。體外验有抗癌作用。愛潑斯坦-巴爾二氏病毒與某種癌症有關。 甘草含有 槲素 。槲皮素有抗癌作用。甘草有降低血清之睾酮同時引起两種酶:17β-羥 基類固醇脫氫酶與芳香酵素(芳香酶)而增加雌激素而抑制前列腺癌细胞。.

  • 6. 抗病毒與细菌   a. 抗 愛滋病毒,抗乙型抗炎病毒   b. 抗阿米巴

  • 7. 對血管之作用:   a. 降血脂.  皂素與甘草黄酮可 與膽固醇與膽酸結合,有乳化作用。

  • 甘草甜素對慢性病 毒性肝炎有效。

  • 有時抗生素對抑制 緑膿桿菌無效時,甘草甜素 有效。 【2】

  • 甘草甜素可逆轉及阻斷肝臟纖維化及早期肝硬化

*註:脫氫表雄酮(DHEA)可 自動轉化為雄性或雌性激素,促進性激素增加,使雌雄激素水平升高;具有增強性功能,抗衰老,推遲更年期,抗腫瘤,提高免疫力等功效

Chemical ingredients:

化學成分:

Glycyrrhizic acid, its potassium and calcium salt provide the sweet tastes of glycyrrhizin. The herb contains 5 to 11% of glycyrrhizin and  3 to 7% of Glycyrrhetinic Acid.

Glycyrrhizic acid can be hydrolized into two molecules glucuronic acid and one molecule 18 b-glycyrrhetinic acid.

It also contains 24-hydroxyglycyrrhetic acid [1] , licorice saponins A3, B2,C2,D3, F3, G2, H2, J2, K, and K2. The hydrolized substance also contains uralenic acid.

Zhang guo gan cao (Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.)Its main ingredients is like those of gan caoThe 12 ingredients isolated from  zhang guo gan cao produced in Gansu include: 8 flavonoids): licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licoflavone,  liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, ononins and 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone;  another 3 kinds are triterprenoidse.g. glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid and β-sitosterol. [1]

根及根莖含三萜類化合物甘草甜素(Glycyrrhizin) ,主要為甘草酸(Glycyrrhizic acid)的鉀,鈣鹽,為乾草的甜味成分。甘 草甜素 含量在511%,甘草次酸含量在37% 。

甘草酸水解後產生二分子葡萄糖醛酸 (glucuronic acid )和一分子18β- 甘草次酸(18βGlycyrrhetinic acid)。

尚含24-羥基甘草次酸(24Hydroxyglycyzzhetec aced)。

尚含甘 草皂素A3, B2,C2,D3, F3, G2, H2, J2, K,  K2

水解物中尚 含烏 熱酸uralenic acid)。

甘草尚含黃酮類化合物,主要有甘草甙(Liquiritin) ,甘草甙元(Liquiritigenin) ,異甘草甙(Iso-Liquiritin) ,新甘草甙(Neo-Liquiritin)異甘草甙元(Iso-Liquiritigenin) ,新異甘草甙(Neoisoliquiritin)等。還含β- 穀甾醇等。
 

脹果甘草:主要成分與甘草相似。甘肅產脹果 甘草(Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat.)中分出12種成分,其中8種為黃酮類 (flavonoids) 化合物,即甘草查爾酮甲(licochalcone A),甘草查爾酮 乙(licochalcone B), 甘草黃酮 (licoflavone),甘草甙(1iquiritin),甘草甙元(1iquiritigenin), 異甘草甙元 (isoliquiritigenin),芒柄花甙(ononin)和4′,7-二羥基黃酮(4′,7-dihydroxyflavone), 另外3種為三萜類化合物,即甘草酸(glycyrrhizic acid),甘草次酸(去 糖基甘草酸) (glycyrrhetinic acid) 和11-脫氧甘草次酸(11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid)以及β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol)。 其中除甘草查爾酮甲外,其余均為首次從脹果甘草中分得,4′,7-二羥基黃酮和芒柄花甙為首次從本屬植物中分得。[1]

光果甘草:主要成分與甘草相似。還含去氧甘草次酸Ⅱ(Deoxyglycyrrhetic acid ⅠⅡ),異甘草次酸(Liquiritic acid )及黃酮類化合物光果甘草甙(Liquiritoside) ,光果甘草 甙元(Liquiritogenine),甘草查耳酮(LicochalconeA.B等 。

Dosage:

用量:

Normally 9 to 12 g. Large dosages can be up to 30 g. See Caution.

一般用9~12 克。大劑量有用到30克。看禁忌條 。

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例:

  1. Ba Zheng San 八正散,

  2. Bai Hu Tang 白虎湯,

  3. Ban xia bai zhu tian ma tang 半夏白朮天麻湯,

  4. Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang 補中益氣湯,

  5. Chai Ge Jie Ji Tang,

  6. Ding Chuan Tang 定喘湯,

  7. Gan Ma Da Zao Tang 甘麥大棗湯,

  8. Gui zhi tang 桂枝湯,

  9. Gui pi tang 歸脾湯,

  10. Jiao ai tang 膠艾湯,

  11. Jju pi zhu ru tang 橘皮竹茹湯

  12. Ma huang tang 麻黃湯,

  13. Ren Shen Bai Du San 人參敗毒散,

  14. sang ju yin 桑菊 飲,

  15. Long Dan Xie Gan Tang 龍膽瀉肝湯,

  16. Shi quan da bu tang 十全大補湯, 

  17. Suan Zao Ren Tang 酸棗仁湯,

  18. Tiao Wei Cheng Qi Tang 調胃承氣湯

  19. Wen jing tang 温經湯,

  20. Yin qiao san 銀翹散,

  21. xiao feng san 消風散

  22. Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang 血府逐淤湯

Modern Applications

现代應用:

  1. Decrease of hypophysis frontal lobe function after child birth.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) cerebrospinal meningitis

  3. Addison's Disease

  4. Ulcers of duodenum and stomach

  5. Infant constipation

  6. Hepatitis B

  7. Colitis of colon with ulcers

  8. Arrhythmia

  9. Lung TB

  10. Chronic prostate inflammation and impotence

  11. Urine retention after surgery

 

  1. 用於産 後腦下垂體前頁功能减退

  2. B型流搆嗜血桿菌疫苗腦脊髓膜炎

  3. 艾迪生病 (腎上腺皮質機能不足)

  4. 十二指腸與胃之潰瘍

  5. 婴兒便秘

  6. 乙型肝炎

  7. 大腸炎兼有潰瘍

  8. 心律不整

  9. 肺痨

  10. 慢性前列腺炎與陽萎

  11. 手術後尿潴留

Modern Research:

現代研究:

For original report, click on the links.

Glycyrrhizin restores the impaired restores the impaired production of β-defensins in tissues surrounding the burn area and improves the resistance of burn mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection.  [2]

甘草甜 素可恢復小鼠被焼傷組織部份之防御素之生産語對抗化膿桿菌 [2]

Effect of glycyrrhizin on HepG2.2.15 cell line supernatant HBeAg and HBV DNA levels may have a two-way, with a dose-dependent inhibition of HBsAg, suggesting that the use of the glycyrrhizin should select the appropriate dosage. [3]

甘草甜素對HepG2.2.15細胞株上清中的HBeAg和HBV DNA水平可能具有雙向作用,而對HBsAg具有劑量依賴的抑制作用,提示GL的使用應注意選擇適應証及合適的劑量。[3]

Cautions:

禁忌:

Small dosages are used as moderating and synergizing herbs while large dosages can increase blood pressure. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema and hypokalemia.

Using gan cao with aspirin may increase the irritation of the stomach.

Gan cao antagonizes gan sui, da ji, hai zao (sea weed), yuan hua.

小剤量能調和配方中的 药 物。大剤量能升高血壓。。長期或大劑量服用甘草可引起「假性醛固酮增多症」, 水腫, 高血壓, 心律失常, 心肌損傷, 肌肉無力。有臨床報導,口服複 方甘草片導致過敏性休克, 藥疹, 低血鉀, 過敏性喉頭水腫, 成年男子陰莖縮小, 陰毛脫落, 睪丸萎縮至蠶豆大小, 嬰兒急性呼吸衰竭, 新生兒中毒等症狀[4]。

甘草與水 楊酸鹽類Aspirin 同用能刺激胃臟。

甘草反甘 遂大 戟海藻芫 花

[1] ACTA Botanica Sinica 植物學報, 楊世林 劉永漋

[2] http://www.jleukbio.org/content/87/1/35.abstract

[3]http://journal.9med.net/html/qikan/zgyx/zgzyyxxzz/20099169/syyj/20100121091410194_503695.html

[4] 《中藥不良反應概論》. 北京大學醫學出版社. 2005: 179.

[5] Chun J. Dig. Dec 2001, vol 21, No. 12  只好消化雜誌, 2001 年,12 月,第21卷, 第12期

Gan cao shao is the tips of the root or the fine roots of the herb gan cao. The property is cold. It is used for treating infection, pain in the penis and gonorrhea. Dosage: 1.5 g to 4.5 g in decoction.

Zhi gan cao is when adding honey to gan cao bake to brown color. Baking or stir frying with honey can improve its function in strengthening the digestive system and immune system.

Qing zhi cao is just plain baked gan cao without added honey.

甘草梢為豆科植物甘草的根的末梢部分或細根。
【性味】性寒。
【功用主治】清火,解毒。治陰莖中疼痛及淋濁。
【用量】內服:煎湯,0.5~1.5錢。

 

炙甘草是甘草加蜜糖烘乾的。蜜炙後可增加補中益氣作用。

清炙草只是生甘草烘乾的(沒加蜜糖)。

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Last update:June 29, 2015; 2: 35 p.m. LAH