Complementary and Alternative Healing University  Home 現代中藥辭典

Search this site

List of Health Problems

Chinese Herb Dictionary

Qigong

Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM

Acupuncture

Prescribed Drug Dictionary

Biochemistry Dictionary

Lecture Slides

Research Librarian

General Online Library

Search

Research Sites

Viagra

Massage/Acupressure

Hypnotherapy

Tell us what you want

Notify Changes & New Information

 

 

 

To post your discussion click here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last update: Mar 11 , 2012; 13:36 p.m. LAH

Latest update: Nov 13, 2012, 8:23 a, LAH

 

 

 m ěr 木耳   ( in English and Chinese 中英文)

translated by: Joe Hing kwok Chu    朱興國編 譯  

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名﹕

Fructificatio Auriculariae auriculae

Botanical name:

拉丁生物學名﹕

Auricularia auricula (L. Ex Hook) Underwood (黑木耳)

Auricularia delicata (Fr.) Henn. (皺 木耳)

Auricularia polytricha, syn. Hirneola polytricha (毛木耳)

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音﹕

mokuji

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音﹕

mokyi

Pron. in Cantonese::

粵音﹕

muk6 ji5

Other Names:

別名﹕

mu er (literally ears of wood)木耳, hei mu er 黑木耳

Common Name:

英文名﹕

Jew's ear, jelly ear

Distribution:

產地﹕

mainly produced in Heilungjiang, Jilin, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan provinces of China.

主產於黑龍江、吉林、福建、台灣、湖北、廣東、廣西、四川、貴州、雲南等地

Properties

characteristics﹕

性味﹕

sweet, neutral, slightly toxic.

甘,平,有小毒。

Channels meridians entered:

 

歸經﹕

lung, stomach, liver, spleen, kidney, large intestine.

肺,胃,肝,脾,腎,大腸。

Medical functions:

藥理﹕

 

1. On the blood circulatory system

 (1) anti-clotting effect of using 300% of mu er decoction, 1ml/100g gavage for 20d The experimental results show that the fungus can prolong the kaolin partial thromboplastin time of 12.06s, increased plasma antithrombin III activity, with a significant anticoagulant effect. In vitro experiments on mice, mu er 50mg/kg injection intravenously, intraperitoneal injection, or by gavage , showed significant anticoagulant effect. The polysaccharides of mu er mu er and possess a strong anti-clotting activity.

(2) anti-platelet aggregation effect: [1] [3] mu er phosphoric acid  buffered saline extract significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro, and blocking those less than 16μmol / L ADP ing  causing  platelets to release of 5 - hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), black The active ingredient of the fungus anti-platelet effect of  is water soluble. Three hours after oral administration of 70g mu er, the   function of the platelets continued to decrease during the 24 hours. Acid extraction of the fungus mycelium (10g/kg in rats intravenously or orally 10g/kg continuous 15 days) in vitro (25mg/ml, 50mg/ml, and 100 mg (mycelia) / ml) significantly inhibited ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation. 5g/kg of the alcohol extract, 7g/kg gavage, a total of 15d, can significantly shorten the erythrocyte electrophoresis time. Using the black fungus acidic heteropolysaccharide on mice by intraperitoneal injection test showed that the polysaccharide could promote the increase of white blood cells. The anti-clotting effect and the reduce the platelet activity increases with the increase of polysaccharide molecular weight and lower alduronic acid content. The biological activity depends on the polysaccharide solubility in water.

(3) anti-thrombotic: when rabbits were fed polysaccharides 18.5mg/kg,  significantly extended the specificity of thrombosis and fibrin thrombus formation, shortened the length of thrombus, reduced thrombus wet weight and dry weight, reduced the platelet count, lowered platelet adhesion rate and blood viscosity. It could significantly shorten the guinea pig euglobulin lysis time, lower plasma fibrinogen levels, increase fibrinolytic activity. The results show that the polysaccharides have significant antithrombotic effect.

 (4) increase of white blood cell effect:  experiment with mice: using intraperitoneal injection of mu er at 2mg /per mouse for 7 days, inhibited leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide

2. promoting the role of black fungus polysaccharides on immune function can increase mouse spleen index, half of hemolysis values ​​(HC50) and rosette formation rate, and promote macrophage phagocytosis and lymphocyte transformation. 250mg/kg of the fungus mycelium for 7 days the mice by intraperitoneal injection significantly increased peripheral blood T lymphocyte percentage; 400mg/kg 800mg/kg subcutaneous, 7 days, half of hemolysis caused by the cyclophosphamide value HC50 reduce back to normal .

3 nucleic acid and protein biosynthesis: 100μg of polysaccharide of  mu er can significantly promote human lymphocyte DNA and RNA synthesis. Giving the polysaccharides to mice by intraperitoneal injection of 100mg/kg for 4 days, may have a weak effect of 3 hours leucine incorporation into the serum protein.

4. Hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effect: using mu er decoction: 30g/kg, continuous gavage 20 days, and with mu er polysaccharides 28mg/kg, and served 8 days, both could significantly reduce hyperlipidemia,  in serum triglyceride (TG ) and serum total cholesterol (TC) content, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol ratio, and have cholesterol-lowering effect. Polysaccharides 180mg/kg gavage prevents the formation of high cholesterol in mice caused by hypercholesterolemia. While feeding cholesterol daily, also fed mu er  2.5g /per animal, a total of 90 days  lowered the cholesterol in rabbit plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) content, improvement of the prostacyclin / thromboxane A2 ( PGI2/TXA2) ratio, reducing the effect of atherosclerosis.

5 Slow down the aging effects: daily feeding mu er to rabbits 2.5g / per animal for 90 days, can reduce oxygen free radicals, atherosclerosis, liver, heart, brain tissue lipid lipofuscin, and plasma lipid peroxidation in plasma cholesterol and can have alleviating arterial atherosclerotic sclerosis lesions effect. This shows that mu er may lower plasma cholesterol, reduce lipid oxidation products of lipofuscin formation to maintain the normal metabolism of cells, thus showing anti-aging effect. Use of chemiluminescence analysis, 2.5% mu er water extract of 50μl, 800μl, 1000 μl of H2O2 generated by the enzyme system and non-enzyme system, the superoxide radical (O-2) has the clear effect, clear and dosage The dose-effect relationship, suggesting that mu er water extract contains anti-oxidation ingredients. mu er 100mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, for 7 days, allows mice extended the average swimming time in water 50.40%, have the ability to enhance mouse anti-fatigue; also significantly reduce the myocardial tissue of mice lipofuscin content; significantly increase in mouse brain and liver tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; isolated mouse brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity was significantly inhibited by inhibition of strength increase with the concentration and to strengthen and increase in the Drosophila fly capability. mu er polysaccharides could significantly prolong the Drosophila average life expectancy of 1.26 times the control group, oral mu er 40d, Drosophila lipofuscin content decreased.

6. Anti-radiation and anti-inflammatory effects: using mice, by intraperitoneal injection of the polysaccharides 100mg/kg for 7 days, antagonism 60Coγ ray irradiation, the survival rate of mice increased by 1.56 times. Using intraperitoneal injection of 60mg / per rat,  reduced the swelling of the sole of the feet caused by egg white. This shows that it possesses anti-inflammatory effect.

7. Anti-ulcer effect: taking  mu er daily 70mg/kg orally, continuously for  2 days, can significantly inhibit the formation of the stress-ulcer. In rats; daily 165mg/kg gavage for 12 days can promote the healing of acetic acid gastric ulcer. It  had no significant effect on gastric acid secretion and pepsin activity.

8. The hypoglycemic effect: using the polysaccharides at 33mg/kg or 100mg/kg orally, can significantly reduce blood glucose levels of alloxan diabetic mice, and oral administration of polysaccharides 4 ~ 7h showed the a significant hypoglycemic effect; and it also reduced the drinking water of diabetic mice.

9. mu er polysaccharide anti-fertility effect: using 8.25mg/kg on mice by intraperitoneal injection, obviously showed anti-implantation and anti-early pregnancy effect. The termination of second trimester pregnancy effect is slightly less effective, but it had no effect on the fecundity transport.

10. Anticancer, anti-mutagenic effect: using  mu er hot water extract on Swiss mice sarcoma S180, the inhibitory rate was 42.5% to 70%; and the  inhibition rate of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is 80%. Feeding  mu er polysaccharide 200mg / (kg d)  for 10 days, countered the effect of  the increase of bone marrow micronucleus rate induced by cyclophosphamide.

11. anti-fungal effect: the ustilaginoidin isolated from mu er possesses anti-fungal effect.

12. The LD50 of mice by intraperitoneal injection of mu er polysaccharides is 789.60 92.19mg/kg.

1.對血液系統的影響(1)抗凝血作用300%木耳煎劑1ml/100g灌胃,連續20d,實驗結果表明,木耳能延長白陶土部分凝血活酶時間12.06s, 提高血漿抗凝血酶Ⅲ活性,具有明顯的抗凝血作用。黑木耳多糖50mg/kg給小鼠靜注、腹腔注射、灌胃,均有明顯的抗凝血作用;在體外實驗中,黑木耳多糖 亦有很強的抗凝血活性。

(2)抗血小板聚集作用[1] [3] 黑木耳的磷酸緩沖鹽水提取物在試管內明顯抑制ADP引起的血小板聚集,並阻斷低於16μmol/L的ADP激活血 小板釋放5-羥色胺,黑木耳抗血小板作用的有效成分是水溶性的。人口服70g黑木耳後3h內即開始出現血小板功能降低,並持續24h。木耳菌絲體酸提取物 體內(大鼠靜注 10g/kg或灌胃10g/kg連續15d),體外(25mg/ml,50mg/ml及100mg(菌絲體)/ml)能明顯抑制ADP誘 導大鼠血小板聚集。醇提取物5g/kg,7g/kg灌胃,共15d,能明顯縮短紅細胞電泳時間。黑木耳酸性雜多糖小鼠腹腔注射試驗結果表明,該多糖具有促 進白細胞增加,抗凝血和降低血小板的作用,其活性隨著多糖分子量和糖醛酸含量降低而增大,即生物活性依賴於多糖在水中的溶解度。

(3)抗血栓形成: 兔口服木耳多糖18.5mg/kg,可明顯延長特異性血栓及纖維蛋白血栓的形成時間,縮短血栓長度,減輕血栓濕重和乾重,減少血小板 數,降低血小板粘附率和血液粘度,並可明顯縮短豚鼠優球蛋白溶解時間,降低血漿纖維蛋白原含量,升高纖溶酶活性,結果表明,木耳多糖有明顯的抗血栓作用。

(4)升白細胞作用:小鼠腹腔注射黑木耳多糖2mg/隻,連續7d,有較好地對抗環磷酰胺引起的白細胞下降的作用。

2. 對免疫功能的促進作用:黑木耳多糖能增加小鼠脾指數、半數溶血值(HC50)和玫瑰花結形成率,促進巨噬細胞吞噬功能和淋巴細胞轉化等。用木耳菌絲 體 250mg/kg,連續7d小鼠腹腔注射能明顯提高外周血T淋巴細胞百分率;400mg/kg、800mg/kg皮下注射,共7d,使環磷酰胺引起的 半數 溶血值HC50減少恢復正常。

3.對核酸和蛋白生物合成的影響:黑木耳多糖100μg對人淋巴細胞脫氧核糖核酸和核糖核酸合成有顯著促進作用。黑木耳多糖給小鼠腹腔注射100mg/kg連 續4d,對3H亮氨酸摻入小鼠血清蛋白有較弱的促進作用。

4.降血脂及抗動脈粥樣硬化的作用:木耳煎劑30g/kg,連續灌服20d,木耳多糖28mg/kg,連服8d,均可明顯降低高脂血症大鼠血清三酰甘油( 甘 油三酯)和血清總膽固醇(TC)含量,提高血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(HDL-C)與總膽固醇比值,且有降膽固醇作用。木耳多糖180mg/kg灌服可 防止 高膽固醇引起的小鼠高膽固醇血症的形成。每日在喂膽固醇同時,加喂黑木耳2.5g/隻,共90d,有降低兔血漿膽固醇、過氧化脂質(LPO)、血栓 素 A2(TXA2) 的含量,提高前列環素/血栓素A2(PGI2/TXA2)比值,減輕動脈粥樣硬化的作用。

5.延緩衰老作用:每日給家兔黑木耳2.5g/隻,共90d,可降低動脈粥樣硬化家兔氧自由基,肝、心、腦組織脂褐質,血漿過氧化脂質,血漿膽固醇含量及 減 輕動脈粥樣硬化病變的作用。提示黑木耳可能通過降血漿膽固醇,減少脂質過氧化產物脂褐質的形成,以維護細胞的正常代謝,顯示有延緩衰老作用。運用化學 發光 分析法,研究了2.5%黑木耳水提取物50μl,800μl,1000μl對H2O2或由酶體系及非酶體系產生的超氧化物自由基(O-2)有清除作 用,清 除能力與用量之間呈量效關系,提示黑木耳水提取物中含有抗氧化作用的成分。黑木耳多糖100mg/kg,腹腔注射,連續7d,可使小鼠在水中平均 游泳時間 延長 50.40%,有增強小鼠抗疲勞的能力;還能明顯降低小鼠心肌組織脂褐質含量;能明顯增加小鼠腦和肝組織中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的比 活力;對小 鼠離體腦中單胺氧化酶B(MAO-B)活性有明顯抑制作用,抑制強度隨濃度增加而加強,並能增加果蠅飛翔能力。黑木耳多糖能明顯延長果蠅平均 壽命,為對照 組的 1.26倍,口服黑木耳多糖40d後,果蠅脂褐質含量有所降低。

6.抗輻射及抗炎作用:小鼠腹腔注射木耳多糖100mg/kg,連續7d對60Coγ射線照射有拮抗作用,使小鼠存活率提高1.56倍。腹腔注射60mg/隻 ,對大鼠由雞蛋清引起的足蹠腫脹有一定的抗炎症作用。

7.抗潰瘍作用:黑木耳多糖以每日70mg/kg灌胃,連續2d,能明顯抑制大鼠應激型潰瘍的形成;以每日165mg/kg灌胃,連續12d,能促進醋酸 型 胃潰瘍的愈合,對胃酸分泌和胃蛋白酶活性無明顯影響。

8.降血糖作用:木耳多糖33mg/kg或100mg/kg灌胃,能明顯降低四氧嘧啶糖尿病小鼠血糖水平,口服多糖後4~7h降血糖作用最顯著;還能減少 糖 尿病小鼠飲水量。

9.抗生育作用:黑木耳多糖8.25mg/kg給小鼠腹腔注射,抗著床和抗早孕效果最明顯,終止中期妊娠作用略差些,但對孕卵運輸則無效。

10.抗癌、抗突變作用:木耳熱水提取物對瑞士小鼠肉瘤S180抑制率為42.5%~70%,對艾氏腹水癌抑制率為80%。黑木耳多糖200mg/(kgd) ,連續10d有對抗環磷酰胺所致小鼠骨髓微核率增加的作用。

11.抗菌作用:木耳中分離的黑刺菌素有抗真菌作用。

12.毒性分量:黑木耳多糖小鼠腹腔注射的LD50為789.6092.19mg/kg。
 

Actions & Indications:

主治﹕

blood deficient)  qixu (qi deficient, chronic cough due to lung qi deficient, hypertension, carcinoma of cervic, carcinoma of vagina, injuries from impacts.

氣虛血 虛肺 虛久咳,高血壓,子宮頸癌,陰道癌,跌打傷痛。

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕


 
木耳含:mu er contains:
木耳多糖mu er polysaccharides.
從子實體分離的一個多糖,相對分子質量為155000,其摩爾比為.14:0.045:0.17:1.00::.61::.44,

其組成為:

From the fructification, a polysaccharide has been isolated and the relative molecular mass is 155000, mole ratio is 14:0.045:0.17:1.00:.61:.44, being composed of:

L-岩藻糖

 L-fucose

L-阿拉伯糖

 L-arabinose

D-木糖

 D-xylose

D-甘露糖

 D-mannose

D-葡萄糖

 D-glucose

葡萄糖醛酸

 gucuonicacid

The mycelium contains:

exopolysaccharide

還含:Also contains:

麥角甾醇

ergosterol

原維生素D2

provitaminD2

黑刺菌素

ustilaginoidin

生長在棉子殼上的木耳含mu er growing on cotton seed shells contains:

總氨基酸 11.50%

total amino acid 11.50%

蛋白質 13.85%

protein13.85%

脂質(lipid)0.60%

糖66.22%

sugar 66.22%

纖維素1.68%

fiber 1.68%

胡蘿卜素 0.22mg/kg

carotene  0.22mg/kg

 維生素A 1.76u/g

vitamin A1.76u/g

維生素B 10.88mg/kg

vitamin B 10.88mg/kg

維生素B2 11.4mg/kg

vitamin B2 11.4mg/kg

鉀1.98%,鈉0.055% ,鈣0.28%,鎂0.23%,鐵0.0017%,銅6.310-6, 鋅1210-6,錳2610-6,磷392mg%

potassium 1.98%,sodium 0.055% ,calcium 0.28% ,magnesium 0.23%,iron 0.0017%,copper 6.310-6,zinc 1210-6,manganese 2610-6,phosphorus 392mg%

毛木耳含:mao mu er (Auricularia polytricha)

血凝素 相對分子質量約 23000

lectin, relative molecular mass is about  23000

木耳毒素 I、II

auritoxin I、II

蛋白結合多糖

protein combine polysaccharide

從子實體得到 2個多糖:From the fructification:

APPA,相對分子質量約120000
 

APPA, relative molecular mass is about 120000
 

APPB ,相對分子質量約 70000

APPB, relative molecular mass is about 70000

皺木耳在液體培養中生長,產生 膜復合體,其中有:zhou mu er (Auricularia delicata )growing in hydroponic solution, produced composite membrane:

地衣酚

orcinol

荔枝素

atranorin

苔色酸

orselinicacid

藻 紋苔酸

salazinicacid

紅粉苔酸

 lecanoricacid

反丁烯二酸原冰島衣酸酯

fumaprotocetraricacid

Daly Dosage:

每日用量﹕

3~10 g

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例﹕

 

Modern Research:

現代研究﹕

See bibliography below.

看下列參考書目

Toxicity & Cautions:

毒素與禁忌﹕

Because of the anticoagulant activity of its polysaccharide[3], do not use this herb in following conditions: coughing blood, nose bleeding, bleeding from the eyes, bleeding haemorrhoids, excessive bleeding in vagina not during menses.

凡有咳血,衄 血,眼底出血,血痢,痔瘡出血,婦女崩漏忌用。【2】

Note:

ADP: adenosine diphosphate

LD50 :An index of toxicity (lethal dose 50%), the amount of the substance that kills 50% of the test population of experimental animals when administered as a single dose.

LD50為:毒性指標(致死劑量的50%),作為單劑量給藥時,殺死實驗動物性口的50%。

kaolin partial thromboplastin time test: see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_thromboplastin_time

 

Bibliography

[1] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1994 Jul;19(7):430-2, 448.

[2] http://academic.evergreen.edu/projects/mushrooms/phm/s79.htm

[3] Thromb Res. 2003;112(3):151-8.

 

Sponsors' Ads by Google 以下為谷歌所提供贊助者之廣告

 

 

A manuscript... writing, translating and proofreading  in progress

Problems with website? Please Click here for comment. Not for inquiry     

Click here for inquiry  

 

 

Copyright Notice 按此看關於 版權問題

List of Health Problems

Chinese Herb Dictionary

Toxicity of Some Herbs

Side Effect of Some Herbs

Herbs that can be toxic to kidneys

Traditional Chinese Medicine

TCM Diagnosis

Samples of Formulae

Terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Acupuncture

copy right

 

版權所有

Qigong chi kung

Prescribed Drug Dictionary

Email our web master for  your suggestion ,not for inquiry

Biochemistry Dictionary

General Online Library

Qigong classes

Lecture Slides

Research Librarian

Search

Qigong classes

Home

Weather Report

 Disclaimer

Search this site