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Last update: June 14, 2013; 11:30 a.m. LAH

 

 

ma bao 馬寶

 

Edited by: Joe Hing kwok Chu

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名﹕

Calculus Equi

Botanical name:

學名﹕

Equus caballus L

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音﹕

 

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音﹕

 

Pron. in Cantonese:

粵音﹕

maa5 bou2

Other Names:

別名 ﹕

zha da鲊,ma jie shi 馬結石

Presciption names: ma bao 馬寶,  ma bao fen 馬寶粉。

處方名:馬寶,馬寶粉。

Common Name:

英文名﹕

horse bezoar

Distribution:

產地﹕

The herb is mainly produced in Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunan, Guizhou, Xizang (Tibet) of China.

藥材主產河北,內蒙古,遼寧,吉林,黑龍江,新疆,甘肅,雲南,貴州,西藏等地。

Properties

(characteristics)﹕

性味﹕

cold, salty, slightly bitter and slightly toxic.

性涼,味咸微苦,有小毒。

Channels (meridians) entered:

 

歸經﹕

heart, liver.

入心,肝二經。

Medical functions:

藥理﹕

 

 

Actions & Indications:

主治﹕

For treatment of epilepsy, yinxu (yin deficient), hot phlegm, mania, delusion and losing consciousness, nose bleeding, vomiting blood, or boils.

治驚癇癲狂,陰 虚痰, 神志昏迷,吐血衄血,惡瘡腫毒。

Chemical ingredients:

化學成份﹕

contains struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate,  NH4MgPO4.6H2O), dittmarite (NH4MgPO4. H2O),magnesium carbonate, and calcium carbonate.

鳥 糞石,磷酸鎂銨,碳酸鎂,碳酸鈣等。

Dosage:

用量﹕

to take orally: in powder form, 0.7 to 2 g.

內服:研末,2~5分。

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例﹕

Name of formula: diang kuang ma bao san

Application: for treatment of madness, manic anxiety, delirium, mania caused by hot phlegm (symptoms include high fever, delirium, even epilepsy and resulting in mania), spitting saliva, talking without making sense, fright and insomnia, crying and laughing, and schizophrenia.

Composition: ma bao 30 g, hu po 3 g, long xian xiang 1g, zhen zhu(bake with tofu)0.3 g, niu huang  1.5 g

Grind all herb into fine powder. Bottle 1 g each.

Dosage: take half bottle each time (0.5 g). If ilness is serious, take 1 bottle (1 g)

藥方名:癲狂馬寶散

功能主冶鎮靜,豁痰,安神,定志。主神經錯亂, 狂躁不安。痰熱蒙蔽心竅,症見高熱、神昏、譫語,甚或痙厥等引起的癲狂,口吐涎沫,神識不清,語言譫妄,瘋狂打鬧,煩躁不安,驚惕失眠,哭笑無常 ,及精神分裂症等。

組成:馬寶 2兩,琥 珀 1錢,龍 涎香 1錢,珍 珠(豆腐炙)1分, 5分。
上 研細末,裝瓶重3分。
用法用量每次病輕者服半瓶 (一分半), 病重者服1瓶 (3分)
 

Modern Research:

現代研究﹕

 

Warning, oxicity & Cautions:

注意,毒素與禁忌﹕

Not to use in cases of cold stomach or in damp phlegm.

Warning: there are fake ma bao in the market. See this study.

痰濕者忌用。

注意:市場上有馬 寶。有些是水泥做成的。有些是用其他獸類的胃結石代替的。 真馬寶的主要成份是含磷酸鎂銨而假馬寶主要成份是碳酸鈣。

 [1] 癲狂馬寶散(衛生部藥品標准中藥成方制劑第三冊(WS3-B-0669-91))

Note:

Yinxu with hot phlegm syndrome: cough with sticky white or yellow phlegm, may even with blood in phlegm, achy and tight sensation in chest area, sometimes with low grade fever, listless sleep, red tongue with thin yellow fur, slippery and thin pulse.

 

陰虚痰 熱主 要症候:咳 嗽,咯吐白黏痰或黃稠痰,甚或痰中帶血,胸脅悶痛 ,時有低熱,夜眠不安,舌紅,苔薄黃,脈細滑數。

 

Damp phlegm syndrome: cough with abundance of phlegm, fullness in chest are, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, palpitation.

 

濕痰主 要症 候:咳 嗽痰多,胸膈脹滿,嘔吐惡心,或暈眩心悸。

 

Cold stomach syndrome: stomach ache due to weather becoming cold, or the body getting chill, or eating cold food, feeling cold in stomach while having pain, pain become less if getting warmth.

 

胃寒

[Analysis and identification of calculus equi components]

[Article in Chinese]

 Zhu Y, Chen Y, Dai L, Liu W.

Center of Material Analysis, Nanjing University.

Components of the genuine calculus Equi and false ma bao were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the main components of the genuine ma bao are NH4MgPO4.6H2O, NH4MgPO4.H2O and MgHPO4.3H2O, whereas the main components of the false Mabao is CaCO3.

PMID: 9642387 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

馬寶成分的分析與鑒別朱育平, 陳逸 ,戴樂美(南 京大學現代分析中心210093)劉午霞 (江 蘇省藥品檢驗所南京210008)摘要用x射線衍肘(WAXD)方法分析了8種馬寶 和1種偽馬寶的成分。結 果表明:馬寶的主要成分是 NH4Mg PO46H2O、NH4.MgO4和MgHO43H2O。而假馬寶的主要成分是Ca CO3。

 

馬寶是一種貴重中藥材,具有鎮驚化痰,清熱解毒之 功效。因其是馬的胃腸道中的結石,故主要 成分為無機鹽。傳統鑒別方法是取少量粉末,洒於錫紙上,下面用火烘烤。如粉末很快聚於一處,並發出馬尿氣味,即 是 真馬寶。如無此現象即是 偽馬寶。為了確定真偽馬寶的無機鹽成分,本文用WAXD對此進行了分析與鑒別。1實驗部分1.1樣品來源8種來源不同的馬寶 和1種 偽馬寶粉末,均由江蘇 省藥品檢驗所提供。1.2儀器日本理學D/MAX-RA型X射線衍射儀,Cu靶(波長λ=0.1541nm)。2結果和討 論真、偽馬 寶的x射線衍射圖分 別如圖1和圖2所示。根據Bragg公式(2dsinθ=λ),由峰位2θ計算出晶面間距d值。將實測d值與JCPDS (粉末衍射標准 聯合會)卡片對照 來確定樣品中含有的各種成分。因本系列的樣品中含有不止一種成分或物相,故有個別譜線重疊。在此僅以油馬寶為例,將其 和偽馬寶的數據分別 列於表1和表2 內。為了簡便起見,表中僅列出8個譜線值。由譜圖和表內的數據表明:真馬寶和偽馬寶的成分是截然不同的。油馬寶和棕 球馬寶是由NH4MgPO4.6H2O, NH4MgPO4.H2O 和 MgHPO4.3H2O, 所組成。草紋馬寶 中主要成分是MgHPO43 H 2O,而NH4MgPO46H2O的含量相對較少一些。卵圓馬寶和淺黃馬寶的譜圖非常相似,主要成分是NH4MgPO 46H2O,但MgHPO 43 H2O較少,灰馬寶也是如此。棕圓馬寶和紅片馬寶的譜圖較為相似,都含有NH4MgPO4,6H2O和MgHPO43 H2O。但是這兩個樣品 的譜圖與卵 圓和淺黃馬寶相比,峰都比較低。這表明:在棕圓和紅片馬寶中NH4MgPO46H2O和MgHPO3H2O的含量 相對較少。偽馬寶的主 要成分是兩種不 同物相的CaCO3,即方解石(六角晶系)和文石(正交晶系)。曾有文獻記載:馬寶主要成分是磷酸鎂、碳酸鈣、碳 酸鎂等無機鹽。根 據本文的分析結果, 這一記載值得商榷。馬寶成分的分析與鑒別@朱育平,陳逸珺,戴樂美,劉午霞$南京大學現代分析中心,江蘇省藥品檢 驗所馬寶,x射線 衍射,NH4MgPO4 ,MgHPO4用x射線衍肘(WAXD)方法分析了8種馬寶和1種偽馬寶的成分。結果表明:馬寶的主要成分是N H4MgPO46 H2O、NH4.MgO 4MgHO43H2O。而馬 寶的主要成分是CaCO3。

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