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mai dong, mai men dong

By: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥 名﹕

Tuber Ophiopogonis Japonici

Biological name:


Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker_Gawl.

Liriope spicata Lour.,

Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang,

Liriope minor (Maxim) Mak

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音 ﹕


Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音 ﹕


Pron. in Cantonese:


mak6 tung1

Other Names:


mai meng dong 麥門冬, yan jie cao 沿階草

Common Name:


ophiopogon tuber



Zhejiang, Sichuan, Jiangsu


Properties (characteristics)

性 味

sweet, slightly bitter, slightly cold

When stir fried with rice wine, it reduces its cold properties and can be used as tonic.


Channels (meridians) entered:


heart, lung, stomach


Actions & Indications:


Improves stomach yin-fluid, and rid of heat


Medical Function:


1. effect on circulatory system

(a) improves contraction of heart muscles

(b) protects heart muscle and anti-arrhythmia

2. Anti shock

3. improves toleration of lack of oxygen

4. improve immune system

5. improves recoveries of cells of the pancrea and lowering blood sugar

6. anti bacteria

7. did not show toxicity in animal tests[17][3][4]


(1) 增强心肌收缩

(2) 保護心肌,抗心律不



增强免疫 系統


在動物實驗没有 發现有毒性

Chemical ingredients:

化學成 份﹕


The root of mai dong contains many kinds of glucosides. the aglucone is ruscogenin 麥冬塊根含多種糖甙:甙元為羅斯考皂甙元
ophiopogonin B, D 麥冬皂甙 B, D
the aglucone :(23S,24S,25S)-23,24-dihydroxyruscogenin 甙元為(22S,24S,25S)-23-24-二羥基羅斯考皂甙元
{(23S,24S,25S)-23,24-dihydroxyruscogenin-1-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside-24-O-β-D-fucopyranoside} (23S,24S,25S)-23,24-二羥基羅斯考皂甙元-1-O-[α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖甙-24-O-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖甙
{(23S,24S,25S)-23,24-dihydroxyruscogenin-1-O-[α-L-2,3,4-tri-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside-24-O-β-D-fucopyranoside} (23S,24S,25S)-23,24-二羥基羅斯考皂元-1-O-[α-L-2,3,4-三-O-乙酰基吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖甙-24-O-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖甙
(23S,24S,25S)-23,24-dihydroxyruscogenin-1-O-[α-L-4-O-acetylrhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside-24-O-β-D-fucopyranoside (23S,24S,25S)-23,24-二羥基羅斯考皂甙元-1-O-[α-L-4-O-乙酰基吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖甙-24-O-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖甙
the aglucone is  diosgenin: 甙元為薯蕷皂甙元
diosgenin-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-(3-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside} 麥冬皂甙D',薯蕷皂甙元-3-O-[α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)]-(3-O-乙酰基)-β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基甙
diosgenin-3-O-[(2-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside 薯蕷皂甙元-3-O-[(2-O-乙酰基)-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
the aglucone is ophiogenin 甙元為麥冬甙元(:
ophioge-nin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside 麥冬甙元-3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
the aglucone is borneol: 甙元為龍腦:
borneol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 左旋的龍腦-2-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
the aglucone is ruscogenin: 甙元為羅斯考皂甙元:
borneol-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] 左旋的龍腦-2-O-β-D-呋喃芹菜糖基(1→6)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
borneol-2-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside 龍腦-2-O-α-L-呋喃阿拉伯糖基(1→6)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
Also contains homoisoflavonoid ingredients: 又含高異類黃酮成份:
methylophiopogonanone A, B 甲基麥冬黃烷酮 A, B
ophiopogonanone A, B 麥冬黃烷酮 A, B
6-aldehydo-7-O-methylisoophiopogonanone A, B 6-醛基異麥冬黃烷酮 A, B
6-aldehydoisoophiopogonone)A, B 6-醛基異麥冬黃酮 A, B
ophiopogone A 麥冬黃酮A
desmethylisoophiopogonone B 去甲基異麥冬黃酮 B
5,7,2'-trihydroxy-6-methyl-3-(3',4'-methylenedioxybenzyl)chromone 5,7,2'-三羥基-6-甲基-3-(3',4'-亞甲二氧基苄基)色酮
5,7,2'-trihydroxy-8-methyl-3-(3',4'-methylenedioxybenzyl)chromone 5,7,2'-三羥基-8-甲基-3-(3',4'-亞甲二氧基苄基)色酮
5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-6-methyl-3-(3',4'-dihydroxybenzyl)chromanone 消旋的5-羥基-7,8-二甲氧基-6-甲基-3(3',4'-二羥基苄基)色滿酮
Also contains: 還含
ruscogenin-1-O-sulfate 羅斯考皂甙元-1-O-硫酸酯
calcium bornyl sulfate 硫酸龍腦鈣
aglucone of mai dong: 麥冬甙元
glycerol 丙三醇
{N-[β-hydroxy-β-(4-hydroxy)phenyl]ethyl-4-hydroxy cinnamide} N-[β-羥基-β-(4-羥基)苯)乙基-4-羥基桂皮酰胺]
β-sitosterol β-谷甾醇
stigmasterol 豆甾醇
β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside β-谷甾醇-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖甙
Also contains evaporating oil: 另含揮發油:
longifolene 長葉烯
patchoulene α-和β-廣藿香烯
cyperene 香附子烯
guaiol 愈創薁醇
α-humulene α-葎草烯
camphor 樟腦
linalool 芳樟醇
terpinen-4-ol 4-松油醇
jasmololone 4-羥基茉莉酮
Also contains: 又含:
28 kinds of inorganic elements:.potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, chromium, lead, nickel, barium, zinc etc 鉀, 鈉, 鈣, 鎂, 鐵, 銅, 鈷, 錳, 鉻, 鉛, 鎳, 鋇, 鋅等28種無機元素。
The same family of plant, the tuber of Hubei mai dong contains a varieties of steroidal glucosides: 同科植物湖北麥門冬塊根含多種甾體甙類成份:
β-sitosteryl-β-D-glucopyranoside β-谷甾醇-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
stigmasteryl-β-D-glucopyranoside 豆甾醇-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
campesteryl-β-D-glucopyranoside 菜油甾醇-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
(25S)-ruscogenin 1-O-β-D-fucopyranosido -3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (25S)-羅斯考皂甙元1-O-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖-3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖甙
(25S)-ruscogenin 1-O-β-D-xylopyranosido-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (25S)-羅斯考皂甙元1-O-β-D-吡喃木糖-3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖甙
(25S)-ruscogenin 1-O-[(2-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-fucopyranoside (25S)-羅斯考皂甙元1-O-[(2-O-乙酰基)-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖甙
(25S)-rucosgenin 1-O-[(3-O-acetyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside 25S)-羅斯考皂甙元1-O-[(3-O-乙酰基)-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-β-D-吡喃岩藻糖甙
yamogenin3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranoside 雅姆皂甙元-3-O-[α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)][β-D-吡喃木糖基(1→3)]-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙
(25S)-ruscogenin 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (25S)-羅斯考皂甙元1-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基(1→2)-β-D-吡喃木糖甙
1-n-butyl-β-D-fructopyranoside 1-正丁基-β-D-吡喃果糖甙
L-pyroglutamic acid 焦谷氨酸
adenosine 腺甙



6 15 g

Samples of formulae:

處方舉例 ﹕

For treatment of chronic arthritis, weakness and shot of breath, consumption, coughing and spitting phlegm, gu zheng and sweating, absentminded, lack of appetite, spermatorrhea.

Prescription: song ren 1 portion, mai dong (do not remove cores) 2 portions, jin yin zi 1 portion, gou qi zi 1 portion.

Cook with water and render into paste. Add refined honey as preservative.  

Dosage: Take about 10 to 20 table spoonful with drinking water every morning and evening.


治風痺寒氣(慢性關節炎 ), 虛羸少氣,及五臟勞傷,咳嗽吐痰, 骨蒸盜 汗,心神恍惚,飲食不甘,遺精滑泄:松 仁八兩,麥 冬(不去心)一斤,金 櫻子, 枸 杞子 各八兩,熬膏,少加煉蜜收。每早晚白湯調服十茶 匙。(蘇軾)



not to be used in cases of diarrhea due to cold from deficiency and fluid retention.

Some old writings mentioned it is not compatible with kuan dong hua, ku shen, and bai mu er.


有文献說麦冬反款冬花苦 參,白木耳。

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Last update: Oct 12, 2013; 8 p.m. LAH