（in English and Chinese 中英文)
Propolis 蜂 膠 （in English and Chinese 中英文)
Propolis is made from resinous sap collected from trees by the bees and then mixing it with wax back at their hives. The bees use it as glue sealant for hive construction and as preservatives on dead insects or on other dead small animals killed in their hives and also as disinfectant to inhibit fungi and bacteria .
The extracts of propolis contain: sinapic acid 芥子酸 , isoferulic acid 異阿魏酸 , and, caffeic acid 咖啡酸, inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus 金黃色葡萄球菌 
Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP), was incubated with 8 different common antibiotics in culture medium containing a fixed amount of a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibiotic compounds used were: penicillin G, doxycycline, streptomycin, cloxacillin, chloramphenicol, cefradine, ampicillin and polymyxin B. They were used in varying levels, ranging between 0.000005-125.0 micrograms/ml or units, resp. Firstly, their minimal inhibitory concentrations were established in the absence of EEP. Then EEP was added in concentrations up to 600 micrograms/ml. EEP had a marked synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of streptomycin and cloxacillin, and a moderate synergistic effect on the others, except ampicillin. 
Propolis also inhibits hepatitis B virus.
Propolis protects specifically against Streptococcus mutans and several other strep species that are closely related to the germ that causes strep throat. Streptococcus mutans are species that cause dental caries.
 Qiao Z, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, Aug. 1991;16:481-2
 Krol W, Scheller S, Shani J, Pietsz G, Czuba Z.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Silesian School of Medicine, Zabrze-Rokitnica, Poland. , Arzneimittel-Forschung, May 1993;43:607-9
 Ikeno K, Caries research, 1991;25:347-51(Chinese Materia Medica), vol 9, mentioned about propolis:
1. anti-microbes that cause diseases: effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses that cause tuberculosis, inflammation of the stomach, edema of the legs, skin problems.
2. sedative and anesthesia effect, and other neurological effects: it is effective in treating insomnia, for pain relieving and various neurological problems.
3. promotes healing effect of tissue: shortens the healing time by 1/3 ~2/3 of ulcerated wounds, especially in wounds of diabetics; ulcers of the mouth, ulcers of the stomach, ulcers of the duodenum, bed sores, burns.
4. effects on heart and brain circulation: enhances the contraction of cardiac muscles, dilates blood vessels, lowers the triglycerides in the blood. The effects are obvious in prevention and treatment of hypertension, heart disease, and arteriosclerosis
5. protecting liver effect: lowers ALT, protects liver cells, effective on treatment of hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis C.
6. anti-tumor effect: propolis contains PRCA factors; so it is effective in treatment and assisting treatment of various tumors.
7. anti free radicals effect: it is a very strong anti free radicals substance. It is a top choice of anti free radicals material for some serious sickness.
8. so far no side effects have been noted.
Propolis can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose and blood lipid, leading to decreased outputs of lipid peroxidation and scavenge the free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus. 
Flavonoids of propolis and other substances can lower transaminase and can promote regeneration and prevent cirrhosis. Such patients should not take alcoholic propolis products, but should take higher levels of non-alcoholic propolis soft capsules or concentrated fluid.
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