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     (in English and Chinese 中英文)

Propolis 蜂 膠  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

 Compiled, translated and Edited by Joe Hing Kwok Chu  按 此 看 中 文化學成份。按 此看對蜂膠評價

Propolis is made from resinous sap collected from trees by the bees and then mixing it with wax back at their hives. The bees use it as glue sealant for hive construction and as preservatives on dead insects or on other dead small animals killed in their hives and also as disinfectant to inhibit fungi and bacteria .

The extracts of propolis contain: sinapic acid 芥子酸 , isoferulic acid 異阿魏酸 , and, caffeic acid 咖啡酸,  inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus 金黃色葡萄球菌  [1]  

Ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP),  was incubated with 8 different common antibiotics in culture medium containing a fixed amount of a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibiotic compounds used were: penicillin G, doxycycline, streptomycin, cloxacillin, chloramphenicol, cefradine, ampicillin and polymyxin B. They were used in varying levels, ranging between 0.000005-125.0 micrograms/ml or units, resp. Firstly, their minimal inhibitory concentrations were established in the absence of EEP. Then EEP was added in concentrations up to 600 micrograms/ml. EEP had a marked synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of streptomycin and cloxacillin, and a moderate synergistic effect on the others, except ampicillin. [2]


Propolis inhibits the activity of several streptococcal bacteria species 鏈球菌 that cause dental caries. Japanese researchers reported that propolis fed laboratory rats had far fewer caries than those given a regular diet. [3]

Propolis also inhibits hepatitis B virus.

Propolis protects specifically against Streptococcus mutans and several other strep species that are closely related to the germ that causes strep throat. Streptococcus mutans are species that cause dental caries.

Chemical ingredients:化 學 成 份:
flavonoids黃酮類化合物
waxes 7.5% ~ 35% 7.5% ~ 35%
10% volatile oils揮發油 10%
5% pollen花粉 5%
 3 ~ 10% fatty acids脂肪酸 3 ~ 10%
4  ~19% other compounds其他化合物 4 ~19 %
aromatic acids芳香酸 類  
terpenoids松烯類
aldehydes醛類
alcohols乙 醇
aliphatic acids脂族酸
esters脂族酸酯
amino acids氨 基 酸
steroids固 醇 類
sugars糖類
Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Copper鎂﹐ 鋅﹐ 鐵﹐ 鈣﹐銅。
Vitamin B1, B2, B6, C, E維生素 B1, B2, B6, C, E

 

[1] Qiao Z, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, Aug. 1991;16:481-2

[2] Krol W, Scheller S, Shani J, Pietsz G, Czuba Z.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Silesian School of Medicine, Zabrze-Rokitnica, Poland. , Arzneimittel-Forschung, May 1993;43:607-9

[3] Ikeno K, Caries research, 1991;25:347-51

Zhong Hua Ben Cao (Chinese Materia Medica), vol 9, mentioned about propolis:

1. anti-microbes that cause diseases: effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses that cause tuberculosis, inflammation of the stomach, edema of the legs, skin problems.

2. sedative and anesthesia effect, and other neurological effects: it is effective in treating insomnia, for pain relieving and various neurological problems.

3. promotes healing effect of tissue: shortens the healing time  by 1/3 ~2/3 of ulcerated wounds, especially in wounds of diabetics; ulcers of the mouth, ulcers of the stomach, ulcers of the duodenum, bed sores, burns.

4. effects on heart and brain circulation: enhances the contraction of cardiac muscles, dilates blood vessels, lowers the triglycerides in the blood. The effects are obvious in prevention and treatment of hypertension, heart disease, and arteriosclerosis

5. protecting liver effect: lowers ALT, protects liver cells, effective on treatment of hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis C.

6. anti-tumor effect: propolis contains PRCA factors; so it is effective in treatment and assisting treatment of various tumors.

7. anti free radicals effect: it is a very strong anti free radicals substance. It is a top choice of anti free radicals material for some serious sickness.

8. so far no side effects have been noted.

Propolis can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose and blood lipid, leading to decreased outputs of lipid peroxidation and scavenge the free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus. [1]

Flavonoids of propolis and other substances can lower transaminase and can promote regeneration and prevent cirrhosis. Such patients should not take alcoholic propolis products, but should take higher levels of non-alcoholic propolis soft capsules or concentrated fluid.

中華本草》第九卷關於蜂膠的說明如下。
第一,有抗病原微生物的作用:因此對由細菌、病毒、真菌所引起的各種感染類疾病,如:結核、胃炎、腳氣、皮膚病等炎症都有效。
第二,它有鎮靜、麻醉及其他神經系統作用:這三種功能使它具備了治療失眠、止痛及各種神經系統的疾病的功效。
第三,促進組織修復:可以促進潰瘍癒合,縮短1/3一2/3病程,特別對糖尿病傷口不愈、口腔潰瘍、胃潰瘍、十二指腸潰瘍、褥瘡、燒傷效果迅速而神奇。
第四,它對心腦血管系統有作用:能增強心肌收縮力、擴張血管、降低血中甘油三醋的含量等作用,對於預防和治療高血壓、心臟病、動脈粥樣硬化的作用非常明顯。
第五,它有保肝作用:可以降低丙穀轉氨誨、解肝毒、保護肝細胞,因此對乙型肝炎、肝硬化、丙型肝炎有極好的治療作用。
第六,它有抗腫瘤作用:對各種腫瘤可以起到良好的治療和輔助治療作用。
第七,它有清除自由基及其他作用:自由基是健康的大敵,有80多種重症疾病都與它有關。蜂膠是一種很強的自由基清除劑,是一些重症患者的首選抗氧化劑。
第八,蜂膠無副作用:正是這一作用,使蜂膠具備了長期服用的優先條件。
綜上所述,正是蜂膠這種綜合的作用為它奠定了廣泛的治療基礎。

再:

蜂膠能控制血糖和調節血糖和血脂的代謝,導致輸出減少脂質過氧化和清除自由基的糖尿病大鼠。 [1]

蜂膠中的黃酮類等物質有降低轉氨酶作用,促進肝細胞再生、防止肝硬變。此類肝病患者,不適合服用含酒精的蜂膠製品,而應服用不含酒精的含量較高的蜂膠軟膠囊或濃縮液。

      
[1] 2005 Feb;51(2):147-52.

 

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