was a famous medical writer
during the later Qing dynasty. During his time there was a vast amount
of influence of new knowledge of Western medicine coming into China. He
studied Western medicine and physiology and anatomy besides Chinese
medicine. He refuted the idea that Chinese medicine was not scientific.
His opinion was that the Chinese medicine emphasized qi transformation
(emphasizing the different functions of the body) and the Western
medicine focused on the physical parts of the body. He thought that both
had their advantages and short comings. One of his important works is
"The Diagnostics of Blood Syndrome" (血 證 論 ).