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zhi shi 枳 實zhi ke 枳殼Jie shi 桔實 

by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

zhi shi is the immature fruit of citrus aurantium and other varieties while zhi ke is the mature fruit.

Pharmaceutical name:

英文藥名:

Fructus Immaturus Citri Aurantii (zhi shi 枳實)

Fructus Citri Aurantii (zhi ke 枳殼)

Biological name:

拉丁植物學名:

  1. Citrus aurantium L.

  2. Citrus wilsonii Tanaka  (香櫞

  3. Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafin. 

  4. Citrus trifoliata L.  (

  5. Aegle sepiaria DC 

Pron. in Japanese:

日語發音:

kijitsu

Pron. in Korean:

韓語發音:

chisil

Pron. in Cantonese:

粤語發音:

zi2 sat6

Common Name:

普通英文名:

zhi shi: immature fruit of bitter orange

zhi ke: mature fruit of bitter orange

   Other Names:

    別名:

zhi ke 只殼,ju 據,ju ju 枸橘,zhi ,  ye cheng zi 野橙子;  chou ju 臭橘, tang ju 唐橘;  tie li zhai 鐵籬寨

Distribution:

分 佈:

Jiangxi, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou

江西,四川,湖北,貴州。

Properties (characteristics)

性味;

bitter, sour, acrid, slightly cold, non-toxic.

苦﹐ 酸﹐辛 ﹐微寒無毒。

Channels  entered:

歸經:

zhi shi enters spleen, stomach, and large intestine

channels.

zhi ke enters stomach, and large intestine channels.

枳 實入脾﹐胃﹐大腸三經。

枳 殼入脾﹐胃﹐ 二 經。

Actions & Indications:

  1. Indigestion due to low function;  bloating in chest, abdomen and solar plexus area;

  2. constipation;

  3. diarrhea but difficult to expel, focal distention;

  4. fullness in the chest;

  5. cough with abundance of phlegm;

  6. prolapse of stomach, uterus and rectum.

 

  1. 氣滯食積﹐胸腹﹐脘腹脹滿﹐

  2. 大便秘結﹐

  3. 瀉痢不暢﹐堳瑹嵾哄M

  4. 胸痹結胸﹐

  5. 痰多咳嗽﹐風痰眩暈﹐痰濕內阻﹐寒凝氣滯﹐

  6. 胃下垂﹐陰挺脫肛﹐子宮脫垂。

Medical Function:

藥理﹕

  1.  Raise blood pressure

  2.  Improve the strength of contraction and tension of the uterus.

  3.  Diuretics

  4.  Stimulate the smooth muscle of the digestive tract.

 

  1. 升血壓作用

  2. 能使子宮收縮有力,提高緊張性

  3. 利尿

  4. 對胃腸平滑肌有興奮作用

Chemical ingredients:

酸橙果皮含橙皮甙 (Hesperidin)﹐新橙皮甙 (Neohesperidin),川陳皮素(Nobiletin)﹐5-鄰-去甲基川陳皮素 (5-0 -desmethyl nobiletin),喹諾啉(Quinoline)﹐那可汀(Narcotine)﹐去甲腎上腺素 (Noradrenaline)﹐色胺(Tryptamine)﹐酪胺 (Tyramine), 辛弗林(對羥福林Synephrine), N -甲基酪胺 (N-methyltyramine)。

Dosage:

Usual dosage is 3 to 10 g. Large dosage can be up to 15 g.

常用量3∼10克,大劑量可用至15克。

Samples of formulae:

chai hu shu gan tang 柴胡舒肝湯

zhi shi da huang tang ( Jing Yue Xin Fang):

Application: for edema in ankles and feet.

composition:

qiang huo, 6 g. dang gui 4 g. zhi shi 2 g. da huang 12 g (prepared with wine)

Boil with 600 c.c. of water and render down to 400 c.c. Drink while the stomach is empty.

Stop using when the bowel movements return to normal.

Adjustment to the formula:

If stomachache is acute: add guang mu xiang 6 g

 

 

 

da cheng qi tang (Shang Han Lun)

Application:

for constipation with sensitive abdomen area

dislike of applied pressure, fever with not chills,

hallucination, dry and yellow tongue, sweating,

strong and deep pulse, heat in all three warmers.

composition:

da huang 16g, hou po 3g, zhi shi 8g, mang xiao 6g.

 

枳實大黃湯 (景岳新方)﹐

治濕滯腳氣﹕

 

, 6 克. 當 歸 4 克. 枳實 2 克. 大黃酒煨 12 克.

 

水一鍾半,

煎八分. 食前空心溫服, 以利為度. ( 錢=3.75 克)

 

大承氣湯(傷寒論)﹐

主治﹕ 峻下熱結﹕

組成﹕

大黃 16 g﹐厚朴 3 g﹐枳實 8 g﹐芒硝 6 g.

Modern Application:

being used in shocks.

用於休克

Cautions:

do not use in case of qi deficiency,

spleen and stomach deficiency (weak digestion ), or in enlarged prostate.

or during pregnancy.

According to the Whole Nation of Japan Farmers' Federation, the five kinds of Chinese herb being sold in the market, chen pi, su ye, da zao, jie shishan zhu yu have been tested and showed they contain farm chemical residues. Although there is a suspicion of conflict of interest but the creditability is high. It is better to soak the herb in water and wash it thoroughly before use.

日本農民運動全國聯合會報告目前日本市場上流通銷售的陳 皮蘇葉大棗桔實山茱萸五種中藥藥材被檢驗出有六種農藥殘留﹔並以陳皮含量最高。雖然報告單位可能被懷疑有利益衝突﹐可信性相當高。使用時最好先用水浸洗乾淨。

 

氣虛脾胃虛弱或在懷孕期間或前列腺肥大者慎服。

Note: Synephrine can stimulate  b 1, b 2,  b 3, a1 receptors and increase blood pressure.

: 辛弗林(羟福林 Synephrine)刺激 b 1, b 2 b 3, a1 感受器官,  而增高血壓。

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Last update: Sept 22, 2013; 3 p.m. LAH