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Last update: Oct 29  2010; 11:31` p.m. LAH



zhi shi

zhi ke 枳 殼

by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu

zhi shi is the immature fruit of citrus aurantium and other

varieties, while zhi ke is the mature fruit.


Pharmaceutical name:

Fructus Immaturus Citri Aurantii (zhi shi 枳 實)

Fructus Citri Aurantii (zhi ke 枳 殼)

Biological name:

Citrus aurantium L.

C. wilsonii Tanaka

C. Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafin.

Pron. in Japanese:


Pron. in Korean:


Pron. in Cantonese:

ji shat

Common Name:

zhi shi: immature fruit of bitter orange

zhi ke: mature fruit of bitter orange


Jiangxi, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou

Properties (characteristics)

bitter, sour, acrid, slightly cold, non-toxic

苦、 酸、辛 、微寒無毒。

Channels  entered:


zhi shi enters spleen, stomach, and large intestine channels.

zhi ke enters stomach and large intestine channels.

枳 實入脾、胃、大腸三經。

枳 殼入脾、胃、 二 經。

Actions & Indications:

Indigestion due to low function,  bloating in abdomen and solar plexus constipation, diarrhea but difficult to expelfocal distention and fullness in the chest cough with abundance of phlegm prolapse of stomach, uterus and rectum.

氣滯食積、胸腹、脘腹脹滿、大便秘結、瀉痢不暢、堳瑹嵾哄B胸痹結胸、痰多咳嗽、風痰眩暈、痰濕內阻、寒凝氣滯、 胃下垂、陰挺脫肛、子宮脫垂。

Medical Function:

(1) Raises blood pressure

(2) Improves the strength of contraction and tension of the uterus

(3) Diuretic

(4) Stimulates the smooth muscle of the digestive tract


Chemical ingredients:

Click here to go to ingredient page. 按此到化學成份頁


Usual dosage is 3 to 10 g. Large dosage can be up to 15 g.


Samples of formulae:

zhi shi da huang tang (jing yue xin fang): for syndrome of rè jī (heat retention), undigested food in the stomach, constipation, fullness and lump in the stomach and pain; for promoting bowel movement.

da cheng qi tang :for constipation with sensitive abdomen area dislike of applied pressure, fever with not chills, hallucination, dry and yellow tongue, sweating,  strong and deep pulse, heat in all three warmers.

治濕滯腳氣﹕ 枳實大黃 湯 (景岳新方)﹐羌活, 錢半. 當歸, 一錢. 枳實, 五分. 大黃酒煨, 三錢. 水一鍾半, 煎八分. 食前空心溫服, 以利為度. ( 錢=3.75 克)

峻下熱結﹕大承氣湯(傷寒論)﹐ 大黃 16 g、厚朴 3 g、枳實 8 g、芒硝 6 g.

Modern Application:

being used in shocks.



do not use in case of qi deficiency, spleen and stomach deficiency (weak digestion ) or during pregnancy.


Last update: June 13, 2012; 11:10 p.m. RC


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