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 Female Hormone and menopause  (in English and Chinese 中英文)

Ttranslated by: Joe Hing Kwok Chu  興國編譯    

Female Hormone

Female hormones can be divided into two group: estrogen and progesterone, although they are steroids, but their chemical structure is different, there are differences in the physiological effects.

Estrogen is mainly secreted by the ovaries, but the adrenal and testicles also produces a small amount, after three months of pregnancy the placenta is the main organ that produces of estrogen.

Estrogens can be classified into: estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3).

After ovarian function becomes depleteda sharp decline of estradiol causes menopausal syndrome of estradiol deficiency diseases

Post-menopausal women are more likely to accumulate fat around the abdomen area.

Menopausal syndrome generally begins about ten years before the menses stop. Menopause is the obvious clinical indicators of ovarian failure . The age of menopause usually is around 55 .

There are great differences how soon or how late menopause can happen. It depends on many factors.
( 1 ) age at menarche: The earlier the age at menarche, the later the menopause .
( 2 ) genetic and familial factors . Those who have mothers and sisters with early menopause, then they may also have early menopause ; and the opposite is true.
( 3 ) Menstrual cycle is short, ( smaller number of continuous days of menstruation), the amount is small,  no dysmenorrhea (pain during menses), then menopause will come later than average. If menstrual cycle is long, larger volume, dysmenorrhea, then generally menopause will come earlier than average..
( 4 ) the standard of living: Those with higher standard of living, menopause will come later. Those with lower standard of living menopause will come earlier .
( 5 ) marital status and fertility: Married women compared to unmarried women, menopause usually come later. Those with giving births more often usually have later menopause than those who never pregnant or giving birth.
( 6 ) education. those with lower education, have later menopause. Those with family discord, loneliness,  indifference may have earlier menopause earlier. Those who are divorced or widowed may have early menopause.
( 7 ) smoking factor. Smoking may cause early menopause, because nicotine hampers ovarian blood supply, and causes  premature ovarian failure.
( 8 ) certain gynecological disorders. such as uterine fibroids, cervical cancer, uterine cancer, breast cancer,  may delay menopause.

See causes of amenorrhea

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Last update: Mar 26, 2014; 850 a.m. LAH